Bugines Batik Costume
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Bugines while batik can be considered both an art and a craft, it is becoming increasingly popular and well-known among modern artists all over the world as a marvelously creative medium that can be used in a variety of ways. Decorating fabric with wax and dye has been done for hundreds of years in various countries of the world, including China, Japan, India, South America, and Europe, and has been passed down through the generations.
On the Indonesian island of Java, batik is an old technique that is still practiced today, resulting in some of the world's best batik cloth being produced. The name "batik" comes from the Javanese word "tik," which literally translates as "dot." In the Indonesian language, batik is both a verb (to batik) and a noun (a batik, an object formed by batiking!). Batik is often created on a fabric surface (such as cotton, silk, linen, rayon, or hemp), but the methods of batik can also be applied to other surfaces such as paper, wood, leather, and even porcelain.
In order to create a batik, selected regions of the pattern are blocked out by spreading hot wax over them. Then a dye is placed on top of the waxed areas, and the parts of the design that were covered in wax resist the dye and retain their original color. Despite the fact that a simple batik is only one layer of wax and one dye, the waxing and dying process can be repeated numerous times in order to produce more complicated and colorful designs. Following the final color, the wax is removed with hot water, and the fabric is ready to be worn or shown.
However, while contemporary batik is influenced by and draws inspiration from the past, it differs significantly from the more conventional and formal designs of the past. To apply the wax and dyes, the artist can employ a broad range of techniques, including spraying, etching, discharging, cracking, and marbling, as well as a number of instruments, including copper and wooden stamps, brushes, and stencils, among others. She can also use a variety of wax formulas with varying resist qualities, such as soy wax, beeswax, and paraffin wax, as well as natural and synthetic colors on a variety of different surfaces.
Of all the resist methods, batik is historically the most expressive and delicate of them all. As the number of techniques available to artists continues to grow, they have the ability to experiment with each process in a way that is both versatile and extremely exciting. The process of batik brings in unexpected elements of surprise and joy, which is why so many artists find it so interesting and even addictive to work with it.
The Buginese people are an Indonesian ethnic group that live on the island of South Sulawesi and are members of the Buginese language group. After the Javanese and the Sundanese, this tribe is the largest of the three. The Buginese people include, in addition to the indigenous people that dwell in South Sulawesi, the Minangkabau migrants who migrate from Sumatra to Sulawesi, as well as the Malay people who inhabit the region.
The Buginese have spread throughout Indonesia, including Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Tengah, Papua, Kalimantan, Kalimantan Timur, and Kalimantan Selatan, as well as to countries other than Indonesia.The Buginese are the largest group of people that are adamant about spreading the Islamic religion. The term Buginese is derived from the phrase "To Ugi," which translates as "Buginese People." It used to allude to La Sattumpugi, the first King of the Chinese Kingdom in Pammana, who is now the regency of Wajo, but it now refers to the regency of Wajo. The To Ugi (also known as the inhabitants of La Sattumpugi) were a group of people that lived in La Sattumpugi.
As time passes, these people become more divided and concentrated in certain kingdoms than others.The eastern group, on the other hand, is working on building their own culture, language, literacy, and even government. It is stated that the classic Buginese people are descended from the tribes of Luwu, Bone, Wajo, Soppeng, Suppa, Sawitto, Sidenreng, and Rappang, among other places.
Those classic groupings have been separated from the old kingdom that has formed throughout the growth of the Buginese population. According to historical records, the Bone Kingdom, Makassar Kingdom, Soppeng Kingdom, and Wajo Kingdom were among the kingdoms that flourished throughout the early period and had a significant impact on the Buginese. It also happened during this time that Dutch colonization came, the Buginese were brought in, and independence was fought for in the country.
Bugines were formerly well-known among foreigners who had settled in the area. Makassar's skill in ocean sailing was unquestionable, and they were able to reach Malaysia's foreign territories as well as those of the Philippines, Brunei, Thailand, Australia, Madagascar, and South Africa with their ship. In fact, they traveled to Cape Town as well. Furthermore, in South Africa, there is a neighborhood named Macassar, which was named as a tribute to the ancestors' native country by the locals who live there.
The Buginese people were forced to travel due to a struggle between the royal kingdoms of Buginese Kingdom and Makassar Kingdom during the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Most people from the coastal area didn't want to be self-sufficient. They were always on the move.
Nowadays, farming, fishing, and commerce are the primary sources of income for Buginese people, rather than ocean sailing. In the village of Buginese-Makassar, most women work on the farm. Some older women still weave the silk sarong, which is the traditional textile of the area.
Many of the weddings are still arranged by parents, and the majority of them are between cousins, which is excellent. Newlyweds often live with their new wife's family for the first few years of their marriage.
Who exactly are the Buginese?
The Buginese are the majority ethnic group in the Indonesian province of Southwestern Sulawesi. They are descended from Malay ancestors. On Sulawesi Island, there are approximately four million Buginese, with an additional one million believed to have migrated elsewhere in Southeast Asia, particularly Borneo and eastern Sumatra. They also live in Buru and Ambon in Flores and other parts of Indonesia, as well as in Malaysia, as well as Singapore and Papua New Guinea.
The Buginese speak a variety of Malay that is distinct from other languages. The Buginese are closely linked to the adjacent Makasar people, both linguistically and culturally, and both languages are written in the Lontara script, which is used for both languages. The lontar palm, on whose leaves several old Buginese manuscripts were inscribed, was the inspiration for the name Lontara.
According to official statistics, almost all Buginese are Muslims. Offerings to ancestral spirits and spirits linked with specific houses, items, and holy locations, on the other hand, are not unusual.
Between 1930 and 1950, an incredible 10,000 Buginese people in a single region made the decision to follow Jesus. Unfortunately, after there was a lot of trouble in the area, there was a big drop in the number of Buginese followers.
The Buginese' remaining followers became more self-sufficient and stopped relying on their Muslim neighbors for help. Despite the fact that Christians have been reaching out to the Buginese for many years, less than 0.1 percent of the Buginese are followers of Jesus. Many Buginese don't want to listen to followers of Jesus from other local ethnic groups, and few of these groups want to share God's love with their Buginese neighbors.
The Buginese people's way of life was retained to a certain extent by the pagan Torajan people until the start of the twentieth century, when they were forced to abandon it. Their residences were mostly built on stilts, and their settlements were likely to be dispersed along river banks, seashores, and lakeshores, among other places.
During this time period, the most important activities included producing rice, millet, adlay, and other food crops, capturing fish and shellfish, harvesting forest products, and hunting wild animals, among other things. Buffaloes were imported and utilized for special events such as weddings and funerals.
The early occupants can have worn only a few layers of clothes. The ladies were likely to be dressed in a skirt, while the men were likely to be dressed in a loincloth and canbe a headcloth. It has also been possible to recover the remains of bronze and gold ornaments. Pottery is present, but bamboo containers and knives, as well as the use of bamboo knives, were more often employed than ceramic vessels. Iron and stone weaponry, as well as rattan helmets and shields, were used in the construction of the fortifications.
From a theological standpoint, it is possible that the early Buginese engaged in ancestor worship. There were also ancient rites associated with agriculture and fertility that were practiced. Generally, they would bury their corpses, but there were a few instances where the departed body was disposed of via immersion in water, such as the sea or lakes, or by being placed in trees. Cremation is another type of funerary technique that is used, particularly for rulers.
Despite the fact that they were living in sparsely populated settlements, they were not completely cut off from the rest of the world. Instead, trade and commerce were held in high respect and viewed as having a key role in the community in which they existed.
It has been discovered that ancient artifacts ranging from 300 to 100 BC have been uncovered near Bantaeng and Ara, indicating that the southern portion of Sulawesi has played an important role in the axis of early Insulin commerce. Additionally, indications of imported Chinese and other continental Southeast Asian pottery and stoneware have been discovered in the pre-Islamic graves.
Nonetheless, in contrast to the majority of Southeast Asian civilizations, the traces of Hindu and Buddhist materials are rather few in the cultures of South Sulawesi.
A few Buddhist bronze pictures unearthed in Mandar and Bantaeng, coupled with their writing system and some of their names and phrases, all point to the existence of commercial links with the western archipelago as well as the presence of foreigners in the region. Despite the fact that they stand to profit from the trading partnership, it is likely that they will reject external assimilation. As a result, external influences on the establishment of indigenous religions and indigenous governments are minimal.
Early Indonesian trade was intense, resulting in a gradual shift in economic development, social construct, political interest, and power balance among the people of South Sulawesi, which fundamentally resulted in the emergence of Buginese states, dynasties, and political systems that have continued to flourish to the present day.
The Buginese have traditionally been regarded as courageous navigators and seafarers. Many historians compare the ancient Buginese to the Vikings because they developed trade routes throughout Indonesia and conquered a number of tiny republics. At one time, the sight of a beautiful Buginese schooner off the coast would send shivers down the spines of coastal residents. When the Dutch colonized Southeast Asia, they became known as smugglers and pirates.
For ages, the Buginese have been avid readers of literature. Their famous 5-part epic, La Galigo, tells the story of the origins of humankind via myths and legends.
Despite their long history of sailing, the Buginese' economy is mostly agrarian in nature. The majority of Buginese live off the land, farming rice or cacao on Sulawesi's lush soil. Sulawesi rice is widely consumed across eastern Indonesia, and a significant amount of cocoa is exported. Coconuts, coffee, cloves, copra, and lumber are among the other Buginese items available.
Agribusiness has been dominated by the Buginese for three centuries, transporting their excess rice, dried fish, and animals to the surrounding food-stressed regions. A year or more at sea is not uncommon for some men, who return home only long enough to clean their boats and resupply their supplies. Women are typically in charge of the household and the rice harvest. Some women have also gone on to become successful merchants and business owners.
When sailing in the Indonesian waters, it is almost impossible to avoid coming across one of these gorgeous traditional schooners, which are always at full sail. Those are the Buginese pinisi (also known as phinisi in certain circles), which have trafficked these seas for decades, traveling as far afield as Malacca, Burmese Burma, Vietnam, and Australian waters.
One can still see large traditional boats at anchor along the Sunda Kelapa harbor in Jakarta and at the Ujung wharf in Surabaya unloading timber from Kalimantan, or at the Paotere harbor in Makassar, on the island of Sulawesi, or even at the small port of Labuan Bajo on the island of Flores, where they have been for centuries.
Among the finest shipbuilders and navigators in the world are the Buginese and the Mandar, both of whom hail from South Sulawesi. These pinisi canoes have transported the Buginese around the archipelago, and many have gone on to establish themselves in places such as Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Papua, and the Nusatenggara islands. They were also called "Buginese" because they were both good sailors and bad pirates, so they were called that.