Introduce Cirebonese Batik
Batik is an Indonesian word formed from the words "amba" (to write) and "titik" (to dye) (dots). When you hear the word "batik," you're thinking of a piece of cloth or fabric that has been painted or printed by adding wax (known as "malam") to block dye colors to create the desired designs and patterns. This kind of fabric to sew a batik shirt, dress, or other costumes will make it unique from the crowd.
Historically, the art of batik-making has been practiced in the Indonesian archipelago for a lengthy period. Historically documented records written on lontar palm leaves show that Batik making was already thriving in the Javanese Kingdom of Majapahit (whose territory, according to a historical account, included most of what is now Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia, the southern parts of Cambodia, Thailand, and the southern parts of the Philippines) as early as the 14th century C.E.
Indonesian batik performance is available in a wide variety of designs. It has been done for years in various regions of Indonesia, especially in West Java, where it is known as Batik Cirebon. Batik is classified as an old traditional costume and has been practiced for generations. The most famous can be mentioned:
- Batik Pekalongan
- Batik Solo
- Batik Jogja
- Batik Cirebon.
According to batik specialists, Batik Cirebon is distinct in that it has more multicultural characteristics in its designs and colors than batik created in Javanese hinterland cities such as Solo and Jogja, which are manufactured in the same region. It generally comprises brighter, more vibrant colors such as reds, blues, and greens. There are also more varied patterns, which reflect the influences that the coastal trading post of Cirebon has received from the Muslim, Chinese, Indian, and European traders who have passed through the town.
Cirebon's Batik Has a Rich History
Batik Cirebon is intimately associated with the empires that once reigned in this region. These are the palaces of the Kasepuhan Sultanate and the Kanoman Sultanate, two of Indonesia's most spectacular royal residences.
Like other types of batik-like batik Yogya and Solo, Batik Cirebon was first used by the Royal Family of Java. It is true of other amazing things about Java Island, like Batik Yogya and Batik Solo.
Then, it appeared to the familiar people brought to the palace by the "abdi dalem," or royal maids. When batik began to be practiced, the only people who could do it were princesses in the sultanates. During their spare time, they engaged in the art of batik.
Taman Kasepuhan and Taman Sunyaragi were some of the batik designs that were made at the time. Paksi Naga Liman, Siti Inggil, Kanoman, and Taman Sunyaragi were some of the patterns manufactured then.
Those designs are referred to as batik Keratonan in this context. Because the plans show how the royal family is organized, not everyone can wear them. Individuals living outside the palace in Cirebon learned how to make batik to sell it to others. Batik Pesisiran is the term given to the designs created by commoners in Cirebon.
Typical Cirebon Batik Designs
There are two types of batik in Cirebon: Batik Keratonan and batik Pesisiran. Both of which are produced in Cirebon. There are no loose decorations in Batik Keraton. Instead, rigorous ornaments have a symbolic value that represents the social position of the wearers and religious significance.
Batik Pesisiran, on the other hand, is more flexible and adaptable, as it follows the trends and needs of the marketplace. The history of commerce in Indonesia demonstrates that batik Cirebon was introduced to the outside world by foreigners who came to Cirebon for trading purposes a long time ago. Then, it had an impact on the decorations used in batik itself.
There are five designs of Cirebonese Batik:
- Mega Mendung
- Taman Teratai
- Patran Kembang
- Lenggang Kangkung
- Kapal Kandas
Mega Mendung Cirebonese Batik
This design has become the symbol of Cirebon batik and one of the most popular forms of batik patterns in Indonesia and the world. This design looks simple and light, but it is thought to show off the person who wears it. It is based on the form of clouds and has five to seven layers of color, each of which is different.
Isra' Mi'raj is represented by the colors of the five pillars of Islam, and seven hues depict the heavens that the Prophet Muhammad went through throughout his journey.
Taman Teratai Cirebonese Batik
This is one of the designs of batik Keratonan because the lotus (teratai) reflects the genuine lotus in the palace, represented by the batik pattern.
To go along with the lotus comes in various forms. There are elephants, dragons, and birds, all of which appear in different varieties.
Taman Teratai is also commonly used for traditional ceremonies in West Java, known as Taman Teratai.
Patran Kembang Cirebonese Batik
This design is made up of creepers, branches, leaves, and flowers that have been drawn on it in various places.
Lenggang Kangkung Cirebonese Batik
It may be described as the movement of kale spinning plants in a circular pattern. Water-surface kale plants served as inspiration for this design motif.
Kapal Kandas Cirebonese Batik
The people aboard the ship are shown in this batik Cirebon pattern. The ship is shown in lines, flowers, animal ornamentation, and embellishments. A well-established individual typically uses this pattern to ensure he does not fail and can anchor comfortably.
The Cirebonese, also known as the Cirebonese people, are an Austronesian ethnic group and nation that is native to the city of Cirebon and its immediate surrounding area, which is located in the northern section of the Indonesian island of Java. The Cirebonese are a subgroup of the Cirebonese people. Approximately 1.9 million in number, the Cirebonses are a Muslim-majority population. Javanese and Sundanese were mixed, with a more significant influence from Javanese. Cirebonese is either a dialect of both languages or an entirely new language.
The indicators (Cirebonese tribe) derived from the local language spoken by the Cirebonese are not the same as those derived from the language used by the Javanese or Sundanese. The Cirebonese group, on the other hand, has a distinct identity that makes them feel as if they are a different ethnicity in their own right.
Another characteristic distinguishing a Cirebonese from a Javanese or a Sundanese is the name, which differs from the names of Javanese and Sundanese people. However, more studies have yet to be conducted to explain Cirebonese's unique qualities and identity. Determining an individual's ethnicity is possible by looking at their biological patrilineal lineage. Furthermore, if a person connects themselves with the territory (Cirebon) in both soul and spirit, they have the right to consider themselves a member of the tribe.
They are shown by the Cirebon palace, built by Raden Walangsungsang, Nyai Rara Santang, and Prince Surya, all descendants of the Pajajaran kingdom of the Kingdom of Sunda. The Cirebon Palace was built by Raden Walangsungsang and Nyai Rara Santang.
However, in the later growth of the Cirebon palace, which serves as a symbol of the existence of the Cirebonese people, the palace chose its route, primarily influenced by Islamic architecture.
Cirebonese Marriage Customs
In the Cirebonese language, the royal wedding tradition is called Pelakrama Ageng, which means "royal wedding ceremony." The marriage rituals try to enhance local traditions while focusing on Islam as the focal point of the celebration. The rituals of a Cirebonese wedding have their own set of local moral standards, expressed in the simplicity with which the Cirebonese community conducts huge festivities in the context of their local moral norms.
For example, in the Cirebonese dowry customs, which only require tubers, vegetables, and valuables (which can be in the form of jewelry or cash, depending on the groom's means), the Cirebonese community will prioritize Islamic elements over other considerations when carrying out those requirements; one of these considerations is to avoid ria (the attitude of wanting to be praised).
A marriage proposal, also known as tetali or njegog in the Cirebonese language, is the first stage of the Cirebonese royal wedding procession in which the messenger of the man visits the parents of the woman's house and expresses his intention to marry their daughter. A marriage proposal is also known as tetali or njegog in Cirebonese.
The woman's mother would then approach her and seek her consent. The lady will next offer her response in the presence of the messenger, who will witness the exchange. After receiving the response, the messenger and the woman's parents will meet to discuss the best time for the wedding. Once there is an agreement, the messenger excuses himself and goes to the man's home to deliver the message to his parents.
On the day of the dowry delivery, the woman's parents and immediate family members will greet the man's messenger when he arrives with his envoy, who will be followed by a group of men bearing the dowry, including the following: Produce-bearers Tubers are the ones who carry them. Vegetable carriers are those who bear vegetables. bearers of mas picis, dowries in jewelry, and cash to be given to the woman's parents when her marriage is completed.
The eggshell represents a vessel or a location, the egg white represents the purity and devotion of the wife, and the egg yolk represents grandeur. As a result, from that point forward, his wife's purity and grandeur belonged exclusively to him. There are a variety of tools that are utilized, including the pipisan (a sort of millstone) and a rectangular stone that is wrapped in white fabric. The bridegroom will tread on the eggs, symbolizing the transition from a young man to a husband who wants to establish a house and have children.
After that, the bride would wash her husband's feet as a mark of loyalty and her desire to create a happy household with her spouse. When the bride is about to wash her husband's feet, she will approach him and beg for his blessing. For brides from wealthy families, the gelondongan pangarang ritual, which is the entire delivery of tribute of commodities, will be performed at the Salam Temon ceremony, which is often held during the Salam Temon ceremony.
Cirebonese Relationship to Javanese Culture
In Javanese culture, the Cirebonese language has always been linked to the Javanese language because of its grammar, as well as the Cirebonese language having words that have the same meaning as the Javanese language, and because the Cirebonese grammar is similar to Javanese grammar.
When translated into Javanese, the phrase "Isun arep lunga song umah" means "I want to go from home," but "I amp lunga song umah" in the Cirebonese language means "I want to go away from home." Although the words acquired in both translations are almost the same, the diversity of sentences in the Cirebonese language is not restricted to merely those resulting from the absorption of the Javanese language.
Among the many dialect variations in Cirebonese is the phrase, "ari khaul mulae bakda magrib mah punten, isun beli bisa teka, and ana janji sih karo adhine." The term "ari," which appears in the sentence, refers to an uptake of the Sundanese language, whereas the word "bakda," which appears in the sentence, refers to an absorption of the Arabic language. If the Cirebonese sentences were translated into the standard Sundanese or standard Javanese language, a different vocabulary would be found in the Cirebonese sentences when translated into the standard Sundanese language.