Coastal Batik Costume


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Coastal Batik

This study investigates the evolution of the history of coastal communities in Indonesia and suggests fascinating issues for further research. A paradoxical position in which Indonesia, as a huge maritime nation, has a vast number of coastal villages inhabited by tens of millions of people, the majority of whom are fishing communities and sea tribes. However, there is still a scarcity of historiography regarding coastal villages. Until now, the historiography of Indonesia's maritime has been dominated by sailing, commerce, and port activity.

The paucity of history of coastal villages is discovered via bibliographical study due to restricted written materials due to the absence of a writing tradition among these groups. However, as historical techniques have advanced, historical sources are no longer completely dependent on written sources, and research on the historiography of coastal communities has begun to be conducted.

Coastal Batik

There is a richness of handmade art along the shore of the island of Java, which is distinguished by the expression of ornamental patterns and methods. In general, the dominance of main and secondary colors is the most noticeable feature. The aesthetic character of coastal batik is also courage in displaying bold colors. Cirebon is a renowned seaside batik city in West Java. Ciwaringin Village, for example, has become a hub for batik crafts.

This village's batik bears the features of Cirebon, which was born and evolved in accordance with Trusmi batik. When compared to Trusmi batik, Ciwaringin batik is distinct in terms of coloration and ornamental themes. Natural dyes are used to make traditional Ciwaringin coloring, a batik technique that has long flourished in the Cirebon Pesisir batik culture.

The aesthetics and significance of ornamentation in Batik Ciwaringin are revealed using descriptive-qualitative methodologies with aesthetic and semiotic approaches in this study. One of the most noteworthy conclusions in this study is that there is no representation of live motives in Ciwaringin batik, which distinguishes it from batik motifs in general, since Ciwaringin batik was born from an Islamic boarding school community with strong Islamic principles.

Another discovery is that Ciwaringin batik artisans use nature not only as a source of philosophical concepts but also as a concern for environmental concerns. Concern for the environment is demonstrated by the development of coloring processes that use natural dyes  rather than manufactured colors.

What is Batik?

A batik is a prominent form of art and craft all around the world. It was developed in Indonesia and employs wax-resist dyes on fabric. Batik is usually done on fabric, but it can also be done on paper, wood, and pottery.

Patterns composed of dots are put on the cloth, which is subsequently colored using a spouted instrument called a canting or a stamp called a cap. There are several styles of batik depending on the country; here is a list:

  • Javanese Batik: The earliest known form of batik is from Indonesia's Java island. Certain designs are designed for royalty and special events like weddings.
  • While there are many other colors to choose from, indigo is a highly popular color in Sudanese batik.
  • Sumatran Batik: The cloth used in this style of batik is steeped in clay for more than a day and is generally adorned with animals and flora.
  • Balinese Batik: This is one of the most recent types of batik, and it is acceptable to wear it casually.
  • Malaysia Batik: The designs on this batik are usually simple and rarely become complex.

Indian Batik: Traditionally, Indian batik was only used to make clothes. It has recently been used for other things, like decorations and murals.

  • Sri Lanka Batik: Over the last century, batik has grown in popularity in Sri Lanka, and it is now an important element of the country's tourism sector.
  • Chinese Batik: This is very old and often uses symbols in its designs, like the dragon and phoenix. It's very traditional and often shows important animals like these.
  • African Batik: Instead of wax, mud or starch is typically used to make the batik designs.

Indonesian Batik Designs

In general, batik design falls into two categories: geometric motifs (which tend to be older designs) and free-form designs, which are based on stylized patterns of natural forms or imitations of woven textures. Nik is the most well-known example of this phenomenon.

Specific designs are known to predominate in certain places. Traditional motifs and colors inspire Central Javanese designs. A lot of Chinese culture has had an effect on batik on the north shore of Java. The brighter colors and more detailed flower and cloud motifs have come from this area, near Pekalongan and Cirebon.

What’s the history of batik?

Batik is a centuries-old tradition that has been practiced for thousands of years. It is found all over the planet. Batik was used to wrap mummies and adorn tombs in Egypt. It has been practiced in China and Japan since AD 600.

While it has been found all around the world, batik is usually linked with Java, Indonesia. It has evolved into a mature art form, and the best batik in the world is still produced in Java.

The batik method was prevalent in ancient Asia and only recently migrated to Europe in the nineteenth century. That's a long time to have to wait for such lovely clothing!

What materials are required to manufacture batik?

There are a few primary ingredients used in the production of batik. Here's a step-by-step tutorial on how to make batik and what materials are used:

The material is cleansed and moistened before being hammered with a mallet.

Patterns are made on the fabric using a pencil and then redrawn with wax.

After that, the material is dipped and immersed in dye up to four times.

The dried wax is scraped away, leaving a pattern where the dye was unable to reach the material.

This technique might take up to a year for the most expensive and traditional batik.

Ancient Batik Patterns of Coastal Java

A new type of batik was formed on the shores of Java, where the sea route connected Indonesia to the rest of the globe. Coastal batik motifs, in contrast to the austere and rigid patterns of Central Java, are free and uncontrolled in both design and color. Gentle sceneries of nature, including flowers, fish, and animals, depict life on the seaside, with influences from China, the Arabs, and India.

Mega Mendung

The giant mendung design at Cirebon, on the north shore, is influenced by Chinese imagery. Clouds are rainmakers and are revered as symbols of fertility and life.


Also known as Gangan, vines are a popular motif in coastal batik. They are typically depicted in order to bring together the qualities represented by numerous symbols. In the above example, vines connect pictures of dragons (prosperity), phoenixes (loyalty), and other creatures, symbolizing power in togetherness.

Floral Batik

In coastal batik, flowers are usually represented. These blooms might possibly have been influenced by European bouquet ideas (such as the daffodils seen in the artwork above) that the Dutch brought with them during colonization. While the purpose of flowers may be solely ornamental, one may argue that by looking at the entire artwork, the full narrative behind the batik can be deciphered. If the artist does this, it's not unusual for them to add some kind of symbolism to the batik.


Beautiful, colorful butterflies decorate numerous pieces of coastal batik and are generally seen alongside flowers. As with flowers, their significance may be determined by the perception of the artist's work as a whole.

Dragons, Elephants and Lions

Other animal figures embedded in batik, such as dragons, elephants, and lions, bear significant meaning, particularly in Hinduism and Chinese culture. Elephants represent Lord Ganesh, while dragons and lions represent strength and riches.

Coastal batik patterns are one-of-a-kind, lively, and even modern. The artists, who are frequently described as freewheeling, are unconstrained, employing synthetic pigments to add excitement to their paintings. Colors, in addition to symbolism, can have significance; pastel colors for young ladies, and darker tones for adults. Red is also frequently associated with good fortune and pleasure.

Classification of batik in southern coast area of java using convolutional neural network method

Batik is a high-value aesthetic craft passed down from our archipelago forefathers. Batik offers a variety of motifs. Perhaps just a few people are aware of this batik knowledge. As a result, not everyone is familiar with or recognizes batik in Java's southern coastal districts. Convolutional neural networks are deep learning algorithms that can recognize and detect objects in digital photos. A convolutional neural network is a sort of artificial neural network that is designed to operate with data in the form of an array. According to the study's findings, with 630 training data and 180 validation data, the results achieved were 100 percent accuracy for the training process and 99 percent accuracy for the testing phase. The model's accuracy was determined by testing it with 90 test data points and yielded results of 93,3 percent. As a result, it can be said that the CNN model that was built can correctly classify batik themes.

Coastal and Inland Batik textile

Coastal batik is a form of batik that is commonly seen around the shore. This type of batik textile usually has a lot of bright colors, which makes it great for clothes like shirts.

Indonesian inland batik is a sort of fabric that is colored and patterned exclusively on the back of the material. The designs are created using wax or plant dyes and are applied to the cloth prior to weaving. The designs are sketched on the cloth, and then the dyes are applied. After that, the wax or dye is removed, showing the design that was placed there.

The human activity of producing visual, aural, or performing works that represent feelings, ideas, or bodily sensations is referred to as an art form. It has been characterized as "the making of lovely things."

Natural dyes have long been used to color clothes. They include anything from plant-based chemicals like indigo and madder to animal products like egg yolk. Natural dyes for textiles are extremely adaptable, producing a wide spectrum of hues ranging from light pastel tints to deep, rich colors.

Wax resist dyeing is a natural and eco-friendly method of creating colors, patterns, and effects on fabric. It's also an excellent way to learn the fundamentals of natural dyeing. Wax is dusted onto the fabric to function as a dye resist. It aids in the creation of vibrant, even coloring. It's one of the simplest natural dyes to create and apply.

Batik art is a wax-resist dying process used on textiles to generate patterned, multi-colored motifs using "tie-dye" procedures. Handkerchiefs, sarongs (skirts), ikat-woven textiles, and garment materials are examples of traditional batik items.

Indonesian Batik design is a sophisticated and rich design heritage that blends the methods of repeating patterns, weaving, and dying to create vibrant fabrics. The ikat method used to manufacture the cloth is frequently reflected in the design of the cloth (i.e., Lengger, Sengka, or Talo). Keris sheaths, tigers, birds, and stylised dragons are popular themes.

Traditional crafts are frequently said to have evolved from the necessity for clothing and shelter. Traditional crafts have their origins in farming, hunting, fishing, and more rudimentary means of creating weapons and equipment.

In Indonesia, batik is still a traditional craft, and the majority of the methods are still done by hand. Batik fabric is also a popular gift among Indonesian tourists. The majority of Bali's handicrafts are traditional works like weaving, dyeing, carving wood or stone, and so on.

Jakarta is Indonesia's capital. It is the largest city in the country and the largest urban area in Southeast Asia. People from all around Indonesia and beyond travel to Jakarta for jobs, education, health care, pleasure, and shopping. Every year, a large number of foreigners visit Indonesia and Jakarta. In addition, Jakarta is Indonesia's cultural and artistic epicenter. In Jakarta, there are several museums, galleries, theaters, cinemas, and other forms of performance.

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