Dayak Costume: The Traditional Batik Art of Dayaks
Introduce Batik Dayak Costumes
Batik Dayak art is a traditional method of creating elaborate and colorful patterns on each cloth item by putting wax and dyes on it. When the batik-making mission is completed, the cloth is ready to create a full costume. It is still practiced today. The batik images are prevalent on the Indonesian island of Java, where it has been passed down from generation to generation and has traditionally been a female-dominated vacation.
It has developed from a hand-drawn method known as Batik Dayak tulis, in which the designs are drawn onto the fabric by hand, to a machine-made technique known as bantatik cap, in which the motifs are stamped onto machine-made fabric using specially produced copper stamps. Even though the traditional costume in batik tulis method is still conducted in some places, it used to be more widespread.
The long and laborious process of creating a length of batik cloth begins with the actual cloth. Below are the highest-quality cloths that may be used to create the best batik shirt, rank from the highest to the coarsest of the four grades:
- Primisima quality
- Prima quality
- Biru (blue) quality
- Merah (red) quality
The Uniqueness of Batik Dayak Traditional Costume
The Batik Dayak are one of the tribes living on the island of Borneo, nomadic people. This tribe is also known for its batik art, which is referred to as Dayak batik by some. Dayak batik is one of the most popular batiks in various locations, and as a result, many batik collectors look for the works of this Dayak tribe to add to their collections.
Apart from deriving from the Dayak Kendayan language, the term "Dayak" also originates from the Dayak Kenyah and other Dayak languages, specifically from the term "daya," which has two meanings: "upstream area" and "strength." The term "dayak" is derived from the term "daya," which has two meanings: "upstream area" and "strength."
Various Austronesian sub-ethnic groups known as Dayaks or Dayas are believed to be the original occupants of the island of Borneo, also known as the Dayaks. More specifically, individuals who practice river culture today are interested in the spread of Islam throughout Borneo. In the past, the Dayak people's culture was mostly marine or based on maritime culture. It is almost impossible to find a Dayak name without knowing that it has something to do with "perhuluan" or rivers, mainly the names of clumps and family names.
The name "Dayak" refers to a group of people because the Dayak people are made up of individuals from a variety of cultures and languages who live near rivers (river culture). After Islam came to Borneo, almost all original communities with indigenous culture (Dayak) moved away from the sea. Instead, they shop on land near watersheds, where most still are.
Dayak batik is distinguished by a striking theme that accurately depicts the culture. Furthermore, the use of colors is more beautiful and highly effective, resulting in the wearer becoming the center of attention rather than the background. The production method is also quite diversified, beginning with the jumputan batik technique and progressing through writing and stamping. You may get all of these things in Kalimantan, and they are now also accessible in the center of Kalimantan free batik fabric.
This Dayak batik cloth is particularly thick and features the distinctive qualities of the Dayak tribe, one of which is the wood design, which occasionally resembles Mandau, another of the Dayak tribe's distinguishing traits. This style of Dayak batik fabric, unlike other Kalimantan batik textiles, has a smoother and softer feel. However, one of the distinguishing qualities of Dayak batik cloth and other Kalimantan batik cloths is the use of bright, eye-catching colors. Various themes may be seen on Batik Dayak cloth, including thin flowers, shields, buildings, and boats.
The Dayak are non-Muslim indigenous peoples of Borneo who historically resided along the banks of the main rivers. Their respective languages are all members of the Austronesian language family in the Indonesian branch. Dayak is a general name with no specific racial or tribal connotations.
It is especially prevalent in Indonesian Borneo, where it is applied to any of the indigenous peoples of the island's interior who are not Muslim. In Malaysian Borneo, it is used less often. It is frequently considered to refer to the Iban (previously known as Sea Dayak) and Bidayuh (formerly Land Dayak) peoples rather than all Dayaks. This figure might be close to 2.2 million people at the start of the twenty-first century.
The Kayan and Kenyah are two of the most important groups of Dayak people. The Ngaju are in central and southern Kalimantan; the Bidayuh are in southwestern Sarawak and western Kalimantan; the Iban are in Sarawak. The Kayan and Kenyah are two of the most important groups of Dayak people.
According to historians, many local spirits and omen animals were involved in the Dayak peoples' highly developed and intricate religious rites in the past. Intertribal combat was prevalent, with headhunting a vital component of the conflict. They have become more interested in Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism. In recent years, and by the early twenty-first century, Christianity had become the main religion in their country.
Historical records show that the people of the riverine regions lived primarily in longhouse groups, which seldom had more than a few hundred members, and traced their lineage via male and female lines. In the past, the family was the most important social unit. Children stayed with their parents until they were married off.
Dayak Social Networks
Although there was little unity between closely connected groups regarding language, culture, and marriage, a man frequently sought his wife outside of his village and moved to live in her community. Many young Dayak men and women, especially in modern culture, leave home before they get married, often to go to school or work in cities. Many also look for jobs in the countryside, like in forest camps or on oil palm farms.
Between the Iban and the Bidayuh, there has never been any official difference between social classes. The Kayan and Kenyah, on the other hand, have traditionally recognized three primary strata of society:
- The upper stratum (which consists of the village chief's family and close relatives)
- The middle stratum (which consists of ordinary villagers)
- The lower stratum (which consists of captives of war and other people who are looked down upon for various reasons)
Many older people still see a difference between classes, but these distinctions mean less for the younger generation.
Most Dayak village economies are centered on subsistence farming of hill rice in changing fields (as opposed to sales). Fishing and hunting are considered ancillary hobbies. Iron tools like machetes and spears are still important in the twenty-first century. Blowpipes are still the most important cultural artifacts in the world.
The Dayak Lifestyle
During this period, they were also denied opportunities to hold other official positions in government organizations and agencies. The lack of competent Dayak leaders or thinkers did not imply a lack of such individuals. The system could have stopped them from achieving political power due to this. As a result, they were cut off from the rest of the world in their own "house."
The Dayak are the indigenous people of Borneo, according to historical records. They were located in the interior of Borneo, well away from the coast. Some claim that they were discovered living along the coasts of major rivers, such as the Pawan River in Ketapang, the Kapuas River (which is one of Indonesia's longest rivers), and so on, but that after some of them converted to Islam or became Muslim, the non-Muslims moved upstream and established a new settlement. This became a contributing factor to the fact that the majority of Muslims in Kalimantan were of Dayak descent. The Dayak lived a nomadic lifestyle in their early years, which meant they traveled from one location to another. They set up shop in one place, usually near the river's edge. They then changed their ethnic name to include the name of the river.
For example, if they were originally from one place and then moved to another place with the names of Kapuas and Kalis, they would add ethnic names such as:
- Iban Kapuas or Dayak Kapuas
- Iban Kanyau or Dayak Kanyau
- Kantuk into Kantuk Kalis or Dayak Kalis
- Kantuk into Kantuk Kalis or Dayak Kalis
The new phrase is created from the names of the rivers "Kapuas River," "Kanyau, a name of the location," and "Kalis, a name of the river," all of which are derived from the name of the river "Kapuas river." As a result, some of the Dayak sub-ethnic groups share customs, languages, and ceremonial practices as a result of this.
For centuries, the Dayak have lived in longhouses as part of a larger community. A longhouse is divided into several compartments or rooms, known as bilik, separated by partitions and doors. Each bilik is held by a single family, which may include parents, children, and even grandparents in some instances. A family's compartment or room may be 20 meters long and 5 or 7 meters wide. It may be divided into two halves. For example, the living room and kitchen will be separated depending on their functions and divided into two rooms.
Almost 5 million people are living in Kalimantan at the moment, with nearly 2 million of them being Dayak. There are no reliable statistics on the number of Muslim Dayaks, and the Christian community constitutes the majority of Dayaks. The majority of Dayak Muslims live near the rivers' coasts, where they are known as "Dayak Muslims." There are a few Dayaks who still adhere to the beliefs of their forefathers. Beliefs are done for a specific reason, like a farming ritual or treating patients. They also do a festival (gawai), which is a way to thank God, among other things.
The figures (Dukcapil, 2015) indicate three dominating populations, Dayak, Malay, and Chinese, with around 4 percent of the population belonging to other ethnic groups like Madurese, Javanese, Batak, Minang, and Arabs. However, due to the high rate of in-and-out migration and movement of individuals, the statistics from the registered population may need to be more accurate when compared to the actual situation. The presence of plantation and mining enterprises is one of the contributing factors. The following are some of the features of the Dayak people:
The Dayak Cultural and Linguistic Distinctiveness
Culture refers to people's different characteristics and ways of life, which include their customs and traditions, ethics and standards of behavior, and attitudes and values, among other things.
Some individuals would prefer to refer to these as material cultures because they contain the physical expressions of the tribes' identities, such as their traditional clothes, music, and dances, which some people would like to refer to as their free material cultures. The behaviors and methods of life of a people, as well as the mental and attitudinal characteristics of that group, as well as what they show and communicate to the world through traditional music, dance, and costumes, are examples of what I would call cultural expression.
The Dayaks consider their culture to be a way of life. Because there are several Dayak tribes, each with its own distinct culture, it might be difficult to tell them apart. They differ in terms of clothes, ceremonial rites, language, and even customary laws, to name a few things.
Their cultures are ingrained in their beliefs and attitudes, as well as their rituals and traditions, and their perspectives on life, all of which influence their socio-economic habits and behaviors. Cultures motivate people to respond to problems that come from outside and are unfamiliar to them, such as globalization, liberalization, and computerization.