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Javanese Batik fabrics have played an important part in Indonesian culture and society for hundreds of years. Batik is one of the most significant parts of traditional Javanese art, alongside literature, dance, puppet theater (wayang kulit), and music (gamelan). Although it is unknown when batik first appeared, or whether it is indigenous or of adopted origin, its spiritual substance and artistic meaning include elements from various civilizations.
Trading relations had existed for ages among the peoples that lived surrounding the Indian Ocean. China and the Mediterranean world, with its vast need for spices, fragrant woods, resins, and gold, were added to the trading network by the beginning of the Christian period. The Malacca Strait, which connected the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea, ran between the Malayan Peninsula and Sumatra. Trade was centered on a barter system, with Indian textiles serving as the primary trading product.
Buddhist and Hindu Influence on Javanese Batik
Around the end of the 7th century, Hindu and Buddhist cultural influence from India began to take hold of the islands, culminating in the establishment of the kingdom of Sri Vijaya in the 8th century, followed by the Majapahit Kingdom's dominance from the end of the 12th century.
Since then, Indian textiles have made their way into SouthEast Asia, and the peoples of the Indonesian archipelago have discovered block-printed, ikat-decorated textiles (see glossary) from Gujarat and cloths with hand-drawn designs (kalamkari) from the Coromandel coast. Among them, Indian ikats (patola) rose to prominence and swiftly became sacred artifacts utilized in numerous rites.
They were cherished as heirlooms, and as a result, some of the earliest Indian patolas have survived. Throughout the history of Javanese textile, makers have attempted to replicate Indian patolas. These ikat fabrics are claimed to have had a profound effect on Javanese Batik designs as well.
Thus, popular Indian themes and meanings were added to the Indonesian decorating palette. Both shadow puppet theater, with its interpretations of India's major epics ("The Mahabharata" and "The Ramayana"), and the art of batik are infused with connections to Indian philosophy and religion.
Chinese and Islamic Influence on Javanese Batik
Muslim traders from India introduced Islam to north Sumatra around the 13th century. This new religion spread to neighboring islands, and by the late 15th century, the Hindu age in Java had ended, and new ideals had been brought to the Indonesian archipelago. Muslim kings had a significant impact on the arts, especially Javanese Batik.
The Islamic prohibition on depicting live beings in art resulted in the development of intricate geometric and other highly stylized themes. This restriction was vigorously enforced in the courts of central Java. However, on the north shore, a more open approach toward creature themes was retained.
This was owing to the entry of a fresh generation of Chinese businessmen and immigrants at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries, who established wax printing companies.
European Influence on Javanese Batik
At the beginning of the 16th century, European colonization of South-East Asia was motivated by the need to acquire spices at their source. However, it wasn't until 100 years later that the term "bathik" was referenced in a Javanese chronicle and also in Dutch sources, in relation to a shipload of colorfully patterned textiles.
Javanese Batik textile themes were developed to express a preference for European trends. The flower bouquet motif (buketan) became immensely popular, most likely as a result of the tapestry embroideries on canvas carried by or provided to new immigrants. Filigree-like designs resembling European laces began to appear. European wallpaper had a significant effect on designs throughout this time period as well.
Several European women established their own workshops around the turn of the twentieth century. Their patterns were frequently inspired by traditional batiks as well as their own. The European desire for simplicity (particularly that of the Dutch) resulted in designs that were primarily ornamental.
Until now, the wearer's identification has been crucial. It will be more common in the future to see batik fabrics signed by their producers. The tradition of batik was brought to Occidental individualism. As a result of this tendency, the underlying significance of some clothing became meaningless, and themes that were formerly reserved for the sultans became common property.
Javanese Batik Dyes and Colors
Plant dyes were utilized in the making of Javanese Batik until the middle of the 1800s; there were rarely more than three or four colors on a garment. Blue in various colors was collected from the leaves of the Indigofera plant, crimson from the bark of Symplocos fasciculata combined with the root of Morinda citrifolia, and brown from the bark of the famous Soga tree, Peltophorum pteroccupum.
The superposition of these hues in various combinations changed the palette somewhat. The manufacture and mixing of the dyestuff was a family secret, and any action linked to fabric dyeing was considered sacrosanct and belonged to old women. Since the turn of the century, artificial dyes have gradually supplanted natural colors.
This has freed women from the difficult chore of extracting colors from plants, allowing them to focus on other phases of manufacturing. Men are now in charge of the coloring procedures.
Colors, like themes, convey a range of messages. In the past, everyone understood and scrupulously followed the color code. A batik might be associated with a certain place or worn on a specific occasion based on its hue. It might also signify the recipient's age or social standing.
Javanese Batik Motifs
Traditional Javanese Batik clothing was imbued with a plethora of visual themes. They were graphic representations of the Javanese people's philosophical and spiritual ideals. To the uninitiated, these designs may appear complex and their message opaque, yet the majority of those who wore them recognized their underlying significance.
It was not random what one wore. One might wonder at the patterns of certain batiks and be satisfied with the aesthetic experience, but more examination will frequently reveal a deeper level of experience.
Javanese Batik motifs are often classified into two types. Those based on geometric principles and those based on non-geometric concepts.
Geometric Motifs in Javanese Batik
These are based on geometric arrangements but may also include realistic objects such as flora, animals, or even shadow puppet theatrical figures. This category includes the following motifs:
Tumpal Motifs in Javanese Batik
Tumpal is a very old and popular motif that may be found on batik garments. Rows of elongated laying triangles make up this pattern. It represents life energy and is said to have magical properties. The pattern is frequently seen at the ends of a sarong/kain panjang. When these ends are sewed together, as in the sarong, a panel is made with two rows of tumpals facing each other, forming a lozenge of contrasting color in the center. Tumpals are frequently decorated with flower or animal themes.
Garis Motifs in Javanese Batik
Garis miring patterns are dramatic, diagonally aligned designs that are distinctive of Javanese themes. Diagonals and intersecting diagonals that create diamonds are considered fortunate designs. This theme was once the sole property of the courts of Surakarta and Jogyakarta. As a result of the sultans' disintegration of power, the parang theme is now worn by all and everyone.
Ceplok Motifs in Javanese Batik
For this group, look for the highly stylized blomster-motives that have been rumored to be imitations of Indian dobbelikat.
Udan Liris Motifs in Javanese Batik
Another theme arranged in the garis miring style is udan liris (light rain, misty rain). It is made up of diagonal rows of small bands of well-known traditional batik motifs.
Kawung Motifs in Javanese Batik
Kawung is built on a parallel row of square and circular shapes. Previously, the kawung motif was only used by sultans. Its original meaning has slipped into obscurity over time.
Tambal Miring Motifs in Javanese Batik
Tambal miring design combines multiple well-known motifs organized in diagonal or horizontal rows within triangles, circles, and onion-shaped lozenges. This pattern is thought to reflect the Buddha's humility, as he wore patchwork robes.
Banji Motifs in Javanese Batik
Hindus and Buddhists consider Banji to be an auspicious sign. Ceplok is based on squares, rhomboids, circles, and other geometric shapes. This category includes highly stylized floral motifs that are supposed to be inspired by the Indian double ikat from Gujarat.
Nitik patterns are made out of little dots and lines that resemble the weaving structures of textiles and matting.
Geometric and non-geometric patterns in Javanese Batik
These designs look spontaneous at first glance. The design's motifs appear to be scattered throughout the material at random. However, with closer observation, one notices a certain recurrence here as well. The semen type ("semi," little buds, and juvenile leaves) is the largest and most well-known set of motifs in this category.
All that is most delicious in Javanese flora may be found here. Plants at all phases of development; roots, leaves, buds, flowers, (or sections of these) expanded details of any of the above utilized as fundamental themes, as well as mountains, stylized waves, trees, and so on, can be depicted.
Living animals from the actual and mythical worlds, creatures of the air, land, and sea, such as phoenixes, dragons, snakes, eagles (garudas), butterflies, insects, fish, crabs, and many others, are scattered throughout this abundance of throbbing plant life and nature. The artist's imagination is the only restriction.
All are emblems of the earth's, sea's, and sky's regenerative and fecundating powers. As a result, Javanese Batiks containing these motifs were naturally saved for the sultan's usage (a larangan or forbidden motif). Temples, pavilions, and ships can be added to the iconography. All are imbued with spiritual meaning.
Plant Motifs in Javanese Batik
Plant themes can be vines or creepers (lung-lung) or trees with aerial and underground root systems, such as the banyan tree (under which the Buddha attained enlightenment).
These may be accompanied with stylised banana leaves and blossoms (pisang bali) and lotuses (symbols of purity and perfection). Flowers such as the hibiscus are featured in modern semen designs.
Bird Motifs in Javanese Batik
Birds have traditionally played a significant role in Indonesian symbolism and art, particularly in the garuda. Garuda is the Hindu deity Vishnu's fabled mount. It has received a lot of attention and has become Indonesia's national emblem. It is connected with power and success and can be found as a single wing, in pairs, or as two flattened out neighboring wings with a wide-spreading tail in semen batiks.
The Phoenix's Symbol Motifs in Javanese Batik
Another common pattern is the Phoenix, which is a symbol of beauty in China. It is connected with serenity and wealth, and it protects against ill luck. It is shown as a feathery flying creature with a long tail and a crest on its head.
Peacock Motifs in Javanese Batik
The Peacock is a mythological motif having roots in Indian and Chinese mythology. The rooster or chicken - a sign of the sun, courage, and fertility - the nightingale, the pigeon, the parrot, the crow, and many other birds may also be seen in semen batiks. However, none of them are easily identified.
The Lion Motifs in Javanese Batik
The lion in its Indian kala form, with a monstrous head, or in its Chinese form, with a curling mane and flowing tail.
The Serpent/Dragon Motifs in Javanese Batik
The snake/dragon design is a typical emblem of fertility, water, and the underworld. They are frequently represented in couples, either facing or gazing away from each other. They are temple guards and are frequently thought to be particularly fortunate.
Caterpillars, beetles, butterflies, and marine animals such as shrimp, lobster, jellyfish, and others are also commonly seen in semen-type batiks.
Natural Occurrence Motifs in Javanese Batik
Natural occurrences such as rocks and clouds (in Taoism, these are emblems of nature's creative energy, strength, endurance, and grandeur). In Javanese mythology, they represent the merger of the ground and heaven, implying procreative capabilities.
Peak ranges are also frequently represented on semen batiks in white on a black backdrop, with the tallest mountain signifying Mount Meru, the Hindu-Buddhist universe's center. Mountains are the abode of the gods, ancestors, and supernatural entities in Javanese mythology, as well as a location to travel to gain magical powers.
Temple and Pavilion Motifs in Javanese Batik
Other non-geometric elements include pavilion-like structures (candi) and ships representing the passage from one planet to another.
Flower Motifs in Javanese Batik
When the creation of Javanese Batik was taken away from the Javanese (and, to a lesser degree, the Chinese), these fabrics began to lose their symbolic value. The buketan designs, for example, have no secret significance; they are to be loved for their flowing lines and color alone.