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The Lampungese of Indonesia
The Lampungese are a people who dwell on the southernmost tip of Sumatra, one of Indonesia's major islands, in the country of Indonesia. They were formerly the largest ethnic group on the island, and they still are now. These days, however, they are outnumbered by the three million Javanese who have been compelled to resettle in Sumatra by the Indonesian government over the course of the last two decades. In response to these transformations, the Lampungese are people who are filled with resentment and dissatisfaction.
The motifs on traditional Lampung textiles that have been established in the past have been included into the present development of Lampung Batik themes. There have been several variations on the Lampung batik theme. Typical themes include gamolan, siger, butterfly, and elephant designs. Symbolizing cultural growth, this is used to batik motifs that are taken from the cultural origins of each region and adapted to the modern world.
Lampungese Batik is beautiful and has a long cultural heritage. Many motifs have been developed over the years and each has a special meaning. Although new designs are occasionally developed, there is a strong sense of tradition that flows through the cloth.
History and Philosophical Foundation of Lampungese Batik
Batik Lampung is provided to you by folks who have lived in Lampung for a long time and are familiar with the culture. A long time ago, there was a transmigration program in operation. Indonesians, especially those from Java, have moved to other parts of the country, like Lampung.
Then the inhabitants of Lampung adopted the culture that had been brought there.
Lampung is an island that is famous for having a million siger. On top of every business, school, monument, and building, there is a siger emblem, which you might say represents the company.
In addition to siger, the area is home to Lampung elephants, which are a unique feature of the landscape.
Over time, the residents of Lampung created representations of siger and elephants on filter cloth and batik, which they sold. Everyone who sees it must believe that batik came from Lampung, Indonesia, because of its unique qualities and ability to show the local culture.
During the reign of Governor Sjachroedin ZP, the batik industry in Lampung flourished. Lampung batik is now used to make handicrafts, clothing, bags, and other household items.
Since then, batik has grown in popularity and is now widely used by the people of Lampung in their daily activities.
Lampungese Batik Motifs
This is where you'll find a wide variety of batik themes. Most have been made to fit the unique characteristics of Lampung, especially in terms of the city and the surrounding area.
There are many different batik themes, each with its own unique set of values that are drawn from the local cultural wisdom of the place. Moms, here are some themes from the Lampung batik tradition.
Siger Motif Lampungese Batik
This Lampung batik is, without a doubt, quite popular. In this batik design, the characteristic of Lampung, known as a singer, is reflected.
Everyone who wears this batik is, of course, pleased with themselves since this batik is a true introduction to the traditional singer of Lampung.
Elephant Lampungese Batik Motif
As Moms said, this Lampungese elephant batik is based on the well-known Lampung elephant motif from Indonesia.
In this pattern, moms will typically find an image of a ship or a singer coupled with a Lampung elephant, which is quite common.
Ship Lampungese Batik Motif
The fishermen in the Lampung area are represented by this Lampung batik design, which may be explained as follows: Ships play an essential role in the lives of the people who live in Lampung, Indonesia.
The sea serves as the province's western and southern boundaries, as well as its eastern and southern boundaries. In addition, there are several big rivers in the city of Lampung.
It is no surprise that the ship or boat is a mode of transportation and trade that is utilized on a regular basis.
The picture of the ship, which appears to be sailing, as well as the décor next to it, are both really attractive. Lampung is well-known for its use of this pattern.
The Lampungese Batik Motif of the Tree of Life
The Tree of Existence is a metaphor for eternal life. For the inhabitants of Lampung, the batik motif represents a profound philosophical understanding. The tree illustrated here is a representation of the tree of life.
People in Lampung think the Hayat motif, which is sometimes called the Tree of Life, has a lot of important philosophical meanings, like the following:
- The heavenly tree
- God's omnipotence
- A symbol of eternal life
- In most cases, women use this material to match their clothes and dress their subordinates in a formal way.
Pramadya-inspired Lampungese Batik Motif
This theme can only be worn at traditional events such as weddings or when attending weddings. Additionally, owing to the scarcity of craftspeople, batik is a little tough to come by on the market nowadays.
The Abung, the Paminggir, and the Pubian are three distinct ethnic groups that make up the Lampungese population. The Abung are mountain people who have a long history of raiding and headhunting in the surrounding area. The Pubian and Paminggir are people who live in the lower parts of the country. They make their money by fishing and delivering agricultural goods to markets all over the world.
In addition to the Lampungese, the Komering people, another Indonesian tribe that lives on the island of Sumatra, are members of the same language group. On the other hand, the two groups, on the other hand, do not socialize with one another since they do not share the same cultural traditions.
In a typical Lampung hamlet, homes are constructed on poles or stilts and are surrounded by water. The majority of these houses are clustered around a single municipal building known as a sesat. The sesat is often a one-room dwelling that has been partitioned into separate rooms where individuals from different social strata may sit and converse with one another. The sesat is where the local government meets to discuss issues.
It is possible to split the Lampungese area into five regions. Afterwards, each area is subdivided into smaller districts, known as "megas," which are overseen by male chiefs. Each mega is given a name based on the family that lives there.
Men and women play important roles in the cultural traditions of Lampung.People who are of high social status can be easily identified by the beautiful clothes they wear when they dance in public.
A large number of Lampungese make their living as fishermen, while others export agricultural products to anticipated markets and cultivate crops on their farms. The recent Javanese migration, on the other hand, has compelled many of the farmers to relocate farther north in the region. Another group of people has just given up farming and moved to cities in search of jobs.
Fabric banners, which are made to represent family ties, are one of the most intriguing Lampungese customs. The depiction of ships, temples, and human and animal images are some examples of what may be painted on such banners. These great pieces of art are on display during weddings, rites, and times of crisis, among other occasions.
Despite the fact that the Lampungese speak their own language, Indonesian is increasingly becoming the language of choice, and it is being taught in Sumatran schools.
Lampungese Religious Beliefs
By the end of the thirteenth century, Islam had made its way into Sumatra as a result of the Sumatrans' trade with Muslim trading partners. The effect of Islam on Lampungese culture gradually eroded it, and local leaders finally lost their positions of authority. People in Lampung were under direct control of the Dutch colonial authorities in the area around 1800.
The Lampungese are devoted orthodox Muslims, according to the Islamic faith. This is in stark contrast to the majority of other South Sumatra tribes, who integrate their Islamic beliefs with animism in order to survive.
It is an Austronesian language or dialect cluster with around 1.5 million native speakers, the majority of whom are members of the Lampung ethnic group in southern Sumatra, Indonesia. It is also known as Lampungic or Cawa Lampung.
The language of Lampung has a considerable number of speakers, yet it is considered a minority language in the province of Lampung, where the majority of those who speak the language dwell. Concerns about the language's extinction have led the provincial administration to make sure that the Lampung language and script are taught in all elementary and secondary schools in the province, starting right now.
Relationships with the outside world
In the Austronesian family, Lampung is considered to be a member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch, although its exact location within the Malayo-Polynesian branch is difficult to define. Over the centuries, the boundaries between Lampung and Malay have become increasingly blurred, to the point where they have been lumped together in older works, such as that of Isidore Dyen in 1965, who placed Lampung within the "Malayic Hesion" alongside Malayan (Malay, Minangkabau, Kerinci), Acehnese, and Madurese. According to Nothofer (1985), the
Lampung dialect is distinguished from Dyen's Malayic, although it is included in the broader "Javo-Sumatra Hesion" with other languages such as Malayic, Sundanese, Madurese, and more distantly Javanese.
Lampung, like other regional languages in Indonesia, is not recognized as an official language anywhere in the nation, and as a result, it is mostly used in informal circumstances throughout the city. Lampung is widely spoken in rural regions where the Lampung ethnic group constitutes the bulk of the population. A considerable proportion of speakers in these locations virtually exclusively use Lampung at home, with Indonesian being used on more formal occasions in the workplace.
In the market, where people from all walks of life come together, a variety of languages are spoken, including regional lingua francas such as Palembang Malay. In the 1970s, despite the fact that Lampung was still widely spoken in rural areas, Lampung adolescents in urban areas had already begun to favor Indonesian as a language of communication. As a whole, there seems to be a general trend of "diglossia leaking" among the bilingual Lampung communities, with Indonesian becoming more common in places where Lampung has been used.
A lady dressed in the traditional clothing of Lampung
For a long time, the province of Lampung has been a popular destination for people who want to move from the more crowded islands of Indonesia (also called the Dutch East Indies) to the less crowded islands.
Following the onset of World War II, the initiative was put on hold, but it was revived by the Indonesian government some years after the country gained independence. By the mid-1980s, Lampung people had become a minority in the province, accounting for little more than 15 percent of the total population, a significant decline from the previous year's 70 percent share of the population. According to the 1980 census, 78 percent of the people in the province were native speakers of one of four languages: Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, or Balinese. This change in demographics is also shown in the language use in the province.
A mandatory subject in the Lampung language has been mandated by the post-New Order era Lampung regional government in an effort to preserve the indigenous language and to contribute to the definition of Lampung's identity and cultural symbol. All students in primary and secondary schools in the province now have to speak the Lampung language.
Lampung State University offers a master's degree program in Lampung language studies, which is taught in English. An associate degree in Lampung language studies was offered by the university at one point, but the program was briefly discontinued in 2007 owing to a change in government regulations. By 2019, the university will be offering a bachelor's degree in Lampung language studies, the school says.