Minahasan Costume in Mina Hasan Culture
Minahasan is an ethnic group from the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi, once known as North Celebes. The Minahasans (also known as Minahassa) are a native ethnic group that originated in the area. The Minahasa people refer to themselves as Manado people.
Even though the Minahasa pre-Christian creation myth implies some ethnic union, the Minahasa territory was not united until the 19th century. An assemblage of politically autonomous factions coexisted instead, frequently in perpetual conflict. Located on the Minahasan peninsula of North Sulawesi, a Christian-majority territory in a Muslim-majority country, Minahasans are the most prevalent ethnic group in the region (Indonesia). In Minahasa, the indigenous people are Austronesian people descended from earlier migrations from the continent's far north.
Minahasan Batik Outfit
Minahasan batik is a technique for decorating textiles in which the areas of the material that will not be colored are coated with molten wax before dying. During the decorating process, the wax stops the fabric from absorbing the dye that has been applied. The fabric is ready to be sewn as a unique costume, like a batik shirt, dress, etc.
The word "batik" is of Indonesian origin, and it is connected to the Malay word "titik," which means "dot" or "point," as well as the Javanese word "amba," which means "to write.”
The Procedure is As Follows:
Around the world, people have used the method of covering or "reserving" sections of cloth with a paste or liquid substance to create a pattern to make Mina Hasan's outfits. The origins of the technique are still up in the air, according to several theories. It is found in:
- Sri Lanka
- Southeast Asia
- West Africa
The art of batik outfit has been documented in the Malay Archipelago since the 16th century, affected by Indonesian batik, with the development of the craft reaching an exceptionally high level in Java, where it is being practiced today.
When the Javanese came up with the canting, a small tool for tracing lines with wax, they made the best hand-drawn fabrics, known as tulis, which are still around today.
In the twentieth century, the Javanese were responsible for developing the copper block, or cap. This technology was an open chance to change the regular way batik was made because it made it possible to create high-quality designs and complicated patterns much faster than possible by hand, reducing the production process's original price. Therefore, the lower price would make it easier to make a sale on the batik Minahasan outfit collection in a clothing shop.
The Origin of Regular Mina Hasan Batik
The origins of batik in Malaysia are difficult to trace back to their source. However, it is known that the Javanese impacted Malay batik-making regarding technique and design evolution. Malaysians used wooden blocks to create textiles similar to batiks early on. Javanese batik artists brought wax and copper blocks to the East Coast at the end of the twentieth century. They've been there ever since.
In Malaysia, the creation of hand-drawn batik has only recently begun, and it is closely tied to the Javanese batik tulis. The first commercial manufacturing began in the 1960s. This craft has acquired its style and design in Malaysia in Malaysia, distinguishing it from other vessels. The new Malaysian batik is a marked departure from the Javanese tradition of hand-painted batiks, which has existed for centuries.
The Minahasan people are a group of people who have a culture that is both distinctive and remarkable in many ways. Before coming into contact with Europeans, people living on the Minahasan peninsula interacted mostly with inhabitants of North Maluku and with Chinese and Malay traders from other parts of the Indonesian archipelago, according to historical records. The region was in contact with the Portuguese and the Spanish beginning in the 1500s.
The inhabitants of North Sulawesi and Gangga Island, both part of Indonesia, speak Bahasa Indonesia, the national language. However, they speak languages belonging to the Minahasan group, classified as Philippine. Tonsawang, or Tombatu, is a language spoken near the extreme northern tip of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Many people in the north speak Tontemboan, while many in the northeast speak Tondano, Tombulu, and Tonsea.
To further complicate matters, inhabitants in the Manado area speak Manado Malay, also known as Bahasa Manado, in various parts of the world. This is a language comprising words from:
According to archaeological evidence, the Minahasa region of North Sulawesi has been inhabited since the late 3rd millennium BC or since the middle of the Bronze Age. This was a time of cultural exchange and conquest. Other civilizations took over many cultures during this time.
Australian communities originating in China, Taiwan, and the Philippines gradually made their way down to Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Moluccas, where they settled. The Mina Hasan people were descended from the initial residents of the islands, who were divided into three separate tribes.
Minahasan Tribal Wars and Watu Pinabetengan
For many centuries, the tribes of North Sulawesi were embroiled in disputes and battles with one another. According to Minahasan legend, the three initial factions came together to resolve the disputes, wreaking havoc on their people. The meeting at Awuan, not far from Lake Tondano, was dubbed "Pinawetengan" (language splitting) and was attended by representatives from around the country. This conference resulted in the three factions being separated into further tribes. At Watu Pinawetengan, you can see the marker that marks the spot where the meeting took place (Stone of Dividing).
When the Portuguese arrived in North Sulawesi in the late 1500s, they discovered a land rich in spices, gold, and rice and decided to settle there. The Dutch and the Spanish arrived shortly after, and the battle for control of the region continued for decades. The Dutch ultimately conquered the territory in the 17th century, and they remained in control of the area until the arrival of the Japanese during World War II.
Most Mina Hasan people converted to the Dutch Christian faith during this period. Some converted to Islam, while others adopted the Buddhist or Confucian beliefs of the Chinese businesspeople who had brought them to the country.
Interestingly, in 1947, the Manado-based political movement Twapro (short for Twaalfde Provincie (Twelfth Province) was created to advocate for the official incorporation of the Minahasa region into the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which was successful. This did not happen, and on August 14, 1959, the Indonesian government made North Sulawesi a province of the country
The Minahasan culture is well-known in the media for a few essential characteristics, including dancing, music, and cuisine. They were a fighting civilization, as evidenced by their distinctive dances. The vibrant, rhythmic dances, once primarily used for ceremonies and tourists, are fun to watch.
Minahasan music has a significant European influence. Marching bands, which comprise clarinets, saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and tubas, are popular in China. All of the instruments are made of bamboo, including the drums.
Regarding cuisine, Minahasan food may be a variety of things, but you can always expect it to be spicy. The inhabitants of North Sulawesi like chilies and use them in various preparations. Although they mostly eat locally caught shellfish, they consume dogs, cats, fruit bats, forest rats, and other animals.
Minahasa District is one of Indonesia's most significant Christian populations, with 93 percent being Christian. It boasts the highest density of church structures in Indonesia, with about one church for every 100m of road. It is also the most religiously diverse region in Indonesia. In Northern Sulawesi, European Christians were able to spread the word about Christianity. This led to the creation of a Christian community.
Percussion instruments such as the gong, drum, and kolintang characterize Minahasan music. It is widely believed that Minahasa music is heavily influenced by European colonial music. Their festivals feature large marching bands made up of:
All are constructed out of local bamboo, which forms the basis of a song genre known as musik bambu.
Five distinct languages are spoken in Minahasa; there are
Tonsawang is the most widely spoken of the five. The North Sulawesi Language Survey, written by Scott Merrifield and Martinus Sales and published by the Summer Institute of Linguistics in Dallas in 1996, was a landmark publication. After a thorough examination of the phonology and lexicon of the languages, it provides an overview of their categorization and geographical distribution.
Minahasan Cultural Renaissance
Since the de-centralization that followed the end of Suharto's New Order era, Minahasa has been strengthening its regional autonomy plan, among other things, by establishing itself as a cultural entity and identity distinct from the rest of Indonesia. Bert Supit founded the three leading Minahasa non-governmental organizations (NGO) involved in the cultural revival movement: "Yayasan Suara Nurani" (The Voice from Within Foundation), "Minahasa Wangko" (Minahasa the Great); and "Peduli Minahasa." The Voice from Within Foundation and Peduli Minahasa are both Minahasa NGO's.
In ancient times, the Minahasa civilization was both competitive and egalitarian. Important shamans were often female, and there is no evidence of any particular prejudice against women in Minahasa society. Decisions affecting the community were reached through a democratic process. Because of the virtual equality of birth, a person's development in social standing is mainly based on their achievements and the manifestation of unique qualities.
Better social standing was obtained via two primary mechanisms: the deployment of riches and the demonstration of courage. The first was accomplished via "Status telematics," ceremonial feasts known as Foso (dinner), while the latter was achieved by effective headhunting.
Headhunting assisted the warrior in gaining an understanding of a theological notion known as "Keter," which is akin to the Malay phrase "semantic," which translates as "soul/spirit essence." Courage, eloquence, vigor, and fertility are manifestations of this spiritual and physical energy.
Despite the absence of the actual practice of headhunting and other ancient traditions and practices, these fundamental characteristics of the original Minahasa culture continue to be held in high esteem. Even now, wealth, boldness, stubbornness, and eloquence of verbal opposition are essential factors in advancing social mobility in Minahasa society.
The majority of Mina Hasan people, particularly the upper class and those who lived in Manado, gradually accepted European and Dutch culture when the Dutch colonized the country and the treaty between the Dutch and the Mina Hasan people in 1699, and their culture became significantly westernized as a result. For most of the 18th and 19th centuries, the Mina Hasan people were entirely assimilated into European culture, dress, and lifestyle. This continued until the resurrection of traditional Minahasan culture in the late twentieth century.
Even though there are still some Minahasan who are more Dutch or European in culture, this is a minority. The Minahasan people are a relatively distinct group compared to other Indonesians. In contrast, Minahasa is also an isolated enclave of Western culture and Christianity, a stronghold of the colonial power's devotion to the West.
Rica-rica and dabu-dabu are two dishes that are prominent in Minahasan cuisine.
- Rica-rica is a dish made with spicy red chili, shallots, garlic, and tomatoes, and dabu-dabu is a type of condiment made with chopped chili, shallots, garlic, and green tomatoes and a little vinegar or lime juice. Rica-rica is a dish made with spicy red chili, shallots, garlic, and tomato
- Dabu-dabu is a condiment made with chopped chili, shallots, garlic, and tomato. Other veggies include papaya flower buds sautéed with shallots, chili, green tomatoes, and sayur bunga papaya.