Sundanese Batik Costume


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Introduct Sundanese Batik

Sundanese Batik, or Parahyangan, Batik refers to batik produced in the Parahyangan region of West Java and Banten, which is located in the Indonesian province of Banten. While parahyangan batiks can be made in a variety of colors, some of their variants are strongly influenced by indigo. The Indigofera plant is one of the world's oldest known dyes, implying that ancient West Java was a major producer of natural indigo. 

The Citarum river and the Tarumanagara kingdom were both named after natural indigo dye, indicating that ancient West Java was once a major producer of natural indigo dye. Ciamis, Garut, and Tasikmalaya produce the well-known Parahyangan batik. Among the other traditions are Batik Kuningan, which was influenced by Batik Cirebon, Batik Banten, which developed independently, and an older tradition of Batik Baduy. Batik Kuningan is an Indonesian batik style.

Sundanese People

Sundanese are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to the western part of Indonesia's island of Java. They are Indonesia's second most populous ethnic group, with a total population of about 42 million people. Sundanese refer to themselves as "Urang Sunda" (English: Sunda people) in their native language, Sundanese, whereas Indonesians use Orang Sunda or Suku Sunda.

The Sundanese Origin Myth

Sang Hyang Kersa, the supreme divine being in ancient Sundanese belief, created seven bataras (deities) in Sasaka Pusaka Buana (the Land of the Seven Bataras), according to this belief system (The Sacred Place on Earth).

Batara Cikal is thought to be the oldest of these bataras, and he is the ancestor of the Kanekes people who live today. Each of the other six bataras was in charge of a different region of Sunda lands in Western Java.

Archaeological evidence suggests that a Sundanese legend of Sangkuriang contains the memory of a prehistoric ancient lake in the Bandung basin highland, implying that Sundanese have lived in the region since the Mesolithic era, at least 20,000 years ago. 

Another popular Sundanese proverb and legend describes the creation of the Parahyangan (Priangan) highlands, which serve as the heartland of the Sundanese realm: "The land of Parahyangan was created when the hyangs (gods) were smiling." The archaeological evidence supported the legend that the Parahyangan highland was both a god's playland or abode and a natural beauty.

Relationships both within and outside of the family

Many Javanese cultural elements have been assimilated into Sundanese culture. It does, however, differ from the previous one. Sundanese differ from Javanese principalities in their mentality and behavior, as well as their greater egalitarianism and aversion to stark class distinctions, as well as their community-based material culture. Central Javanese court culture developed in an environment that encouraged elite, stylized, and impeccably polished forms of art and literature. Sundanese culture retains only a few traces of these traditions in their most pure form.

Sundanese people follow a bilateral kinship system in which both male and female descent are valued equally. Sundanese families' most important rituals revolved around life cycles, from conception to death, and they adopted many previous Animist, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic traditions, as well as their own customs.

A prenatal ritual known as Nujuh Bulanan, for example, is performed during the seventh month of a woman's pregnancy. Parents are expected to perform an Islamic ritual known as Akekahan shortly after the birth of their child. In this ritual, they slaughter a goat for a baby girl and two goats for a baby boy, then cook and distribute the meat to relatives and neighbors. Pre-pubescent boys are circumcised, and the ceremony is preceded by a Sizingaan dance performance (dance).

The wedding ceremony, which includes several intricate rituals such as naroskeun and neundeun omong, is an important part of a Sundanese family celebration (marriage proposal and agreement conducted by parents and family elders). Sundanese families commonly use traditional Islam-based rituals such as pengajian (Quran recitation) and providing berkat (rice box with side dishes) to commemorate the death of a loved one.

From the day of death until the seventh day after, the Quran is recited daily; it is then repeated on the 40th, a year, and 1,000th days after the deceased's death. Because an increasing number of Sundanese are rejecting many of the older traditions, this tradition is not always closely and faithfully followed in the modern era.

Sundanese Artforms

The vast majority of Sundanese literature was passed down orally. Their arts (such as architecture, music, dance, textiles, and ceremonies) preserved traditions dating back to the Neolithic and were never overrun (as in Java) by aristocratic Hindu-Buddhist ideas.

Sundanese art and culture have been influenced by a wide range of historical influences, including prehistoric native animism and shamanism traditions, ancient Hindu-Buddhist heritage, and Islamic culture, to name a few.

Sundanese people are said to have vivid oral memories of the Sunda Kingdom's glory days. Pantun Sunda refers to the Sundanese oral tradition, which consists of a chant of poetic verses used for story-telling.

It is the Indonesian equivalent of the Javanese tembang, and it is similar but not identical to the Malay pantun. The legends and folklore of the Pantun Sunda include the stories of Sangkuriang, Lutung Kasarung, Ciung Wanara, Mundinglaya Dikusumah, King Siliwangi's tales, and popular children's folk stories such as Si Leungli.

Traditional Sudanese arts include a variety of genres such as music, dance, and combative arts. Some of the most well-known types of Sundanese music include angklung bamboo music, kecapi suling music, gamelan degung, reyog Sunda, and rampak gendang. The Angklung bamboo musical instrument is an intangible cultural heritage item, which means it has no physical counterpart.

The most well-known and distinctive Sundanese dance is the Jaipongan, a traditional social dance that is commonly, but incorrectly, associated with eroticism. The Jaipongan is a mash-up of a number of other dances. Other well-known dances, such as the Merak, depict a flock of colorful peafowl dancing. The Sisingaan dance is mostly performed in Subang to commemorate the circumcision ritual, with the boy seated on a lion figure carried by four men and the dancers dressed in traditional attire. Among the other dances with Javanese Mataram courtly influences are the Peafowl dance, Dewi dance, and Ratu Graeni dance.

The most well-known Sundanese wayang performance is wayang golek puppetry. Indonesians are the creators of a wide range of cultural expressions, including kejawen dance and literature, gamelan music, and shadow puppetry (wayang kulit). Sundanese puppetry is influenced more by Islamic folklore than Javanese puppetry, which is present in both versions.

The Sundanese martial art of Pencak silat is thought to have originated with King Siliwangi of the Sunda Pajajaran kingdom, and Cimande is one of the most prestigious schools of this art in the Sundanese tradition.

Tarung Derajat, a recently developed martial art form, is also widely practiced in West Java. In Sundanese culture, the kujang is a traditional weapon used to defend oneself.

Sundanese architecture differs from other types of architecture in its functionality, simplicity, modesty, uniformity with small details, use of natural thatched materials, and unwavering commitment to harmony with nature and the surrounding environment.

A gable-roofed structure, also known as a kampung style roof, is the most common type of traditional house in Sundanese architecture. It is constructed on short stilts with thatched materials (ijuk black aren fibers, kirai, hateup leaves, or palm leaves) covering wooden frames and beams. Hip and gablet roofs are examples of roof variations found on this structure (a combination of a gable and hip roof).

In the local language, the more elaborated overhanging gablet roof is known as Julang Ngapak, which translates as "bird spreading wings." Buka Pongpok, Capit Gunting, Jubleg Nangkub, Badak Heuay, Tagog Anjing, and Perahu Kemureb are some other traditional Sundanese house forms.

A rice barn, also known as a leuit in Sundanese, is an important structure in Sundanese agriculture. It serves as a rice storage facility and is located near the houses. During the Seren Taun harvest ceremony, leuit is required.

Sundanese Cuisine

Sundanese cuisine is one of the most well-known traditional foods in Indonesia, and it can be found in almost all Indonesian cities, making it one of the most accessible. The freshness of Sundanese cuisine distinguishes it from other cuisines.

Sundanese people, like the rest of Indonesia's ethnic groups, eat rice for nearly every meal. "You haven't eaten anything if you haven't eaten rice," the Sundanese say. Rice can be prepared in a variety of ways, and there are hundreds of them. Steamed rice, rather than being the focal point of every meal, serves as the foundation for all of them.

To provide a variety of tastes as well as a higher intake of protein, minerals, and nutrients than would otherwise be possible, side dishes of vegetables, fish, or meat are served in addition to steamed rice. This group of side dishes includes the use of garlic, galangal, turmeric, coriander, ginger, and lemongrass. Grilled, fried, steamed, or cooked on the stovetop are all options. Sundanese enjoy pepes, a herb-rich dish wrapped and cooked in banana leaves. Pepes is a popular Indonesian dish. Pepes are available in a variety of flavors depending on the ingredients, including carp fish, anchovies, minced meat with eggs, mushrooms, tofu, and oncom (onion). Oncom, like tempe in Javanese cuisine, is a fermented peanut-based ingredient popular in Sundanese cuisine. Oncom, a fermented peanut-based ingredient, is used in Sundanese cuisine.

When served with a boiling sauce made by grinding chili peppers and garlic together, the food is usually not overly spicy on its own. Saltwater fish are common along the coast; in the mountains, carp and goldfish from ponds are the most common types of fish to find. Lalapan is a popular Sundanese dish that consists entirely of raw vegetables such as papaya leaves, cucumbers, eggplant, and bitter melon.

Sundanese cuisine is generally rich and savory, but not as rich as Padang cuisine or as sweet as Javanese cuisine.

Sundanese Occupations

For centuries, agriculture, particularly rice cultivation, has been a traditional Sundanese occupation. Sundanese culture and tradition are centered on the agricultural cycle, which is a year-round activity. Seren Taun harvest ceremonies, for example, are highly valued in traditional Sundanese communities throughout Indonesia, particularly in Sukabumi province's Ciptagelar village, Bogor's Taman Sari district's Sindang Barang, and Cigugur Kuningan. The leuit (rice barn) has long been an important part of traditional Sundanese villages, and its inhabitants regard it as a symbol of wealth and well-being. The majority of Sundanese have been farmers since recorded history began. They frequently express apprehension about becoming government officials or legislators.

Following agriculture, business and trade are popular ways for Sundanese to make a living, though the majority are traditional ventures such as traveling food or drink vendors, opening modest food stalls or restaurants, working as daily consumer goods vendors, or opening a barbershop.

Sundanese independence, carefree attitude, egalitarianism, individualism, and optimism are likely to influence their proclivity for starting and running small-scale businesses. They appear to despise the rigid structure of the government as well as the rule of law. The majority of traditional traveling food vendors and food stalls are run by Sundanese people, including Siomay, Gado-gado, and Karedok, Nasi Goreng, Cendol, Bubur Ayam, Roti Bakar (grilled bread), Bubur kacang hijau (green bean congee), and Indomie instant noodle stall.

Sundanese, on the other hand, have made a name for themselves in national politics, government offices, and military positions as intellectuals or politicians. Some notable Sundanese have risen to positions of power in the Indonesian government and military, including governors, municipal majors, vice presidents, and state ministers in the government and officers and colonels in the military.

Sundanese people are also known for being upbeat and mercurial, with a penchant for joking and tease one another. The wayang golek artform, which features the characters Cepot, Dawala, and Gareng Punakawan, exemplifies Sundanese eccentricity. Some Sundanese may develop an appreciation for art and culture and go on to work as artists in a variety of mediums such as fine art, music, and performing arts. Several Sundanese work in the music and entertainment industries today, including some of Indonesia's most well-known singers, musicians, composers, film directors, and film and sinetron actors of Sundanese descent.

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