Sundanese Costume: The Unique Batik Clothes of Sundanese People
Introduce Traditional Sundanese Batik Clothes: Batik Shirt, Dress, and More
Sundanese Batik, or Parahyangan Batik, refers to any batik costume produced in the Parahyangan region of West Java and Banten, located in the Indonesian province of Banten. While Parahyangan batik clothes can be made in various colors, some of their variants are strongly influenced by indigo. The Indigofera plant is one of the world's oldest known dyes, implying that ancient West Java was a major producer of natural indigo to make unique batik Sundanese outfit dresses or clothing.
The Citarum River and the Tarumanagara kingdom were named after natural indigo dye, indicating that ancient West Java was once a significant producer of natural indigo dye. Ciamis, Garut, and Tasikmalaya produce the well-known Parahyangan batik attire. Among the other traditions are Batik Kuningan, which was influenced by Batik Cirebon, Batik Banten, which developed independently, and an old tradition of Batik Baduy. Batik Kuningan is an Indonesian batik style.
Sundanese is a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to the western part of Indonesia's island of Java. They are Indonesia's second most populous ethnic group, with a total population of about 42 million. Sundanese refer to themselves as "Urang Sunda" (English: Sunda people) in their native language, Sundanese, whereas Indonesians use Orang Sunda or Suku Sunda.
The Sundanese Origin Myth
Sang Hyang Kersa, the supreme divine being in ancient Sundanese belief, created seven bataras (deities) in Sasaka Pusaka Buana (the Land of the Seven Bataras), according to this belief system (The Sacred Place on Earth).
Batara Cikal is considered the oldest of these bataras and the ancestor of the Kanekes people who live today. The other six bataras were in charge of a different region of Sunda lands in Western Java.
Archaeological evidence suggests that a Sundanese legend of Sangkuriang contains the memory of a prehistoric ancient lake in the Bandung basin highland, implying that Sundanese has lived in the region since the Mesolithic era, at least 20,000 years ago.
Another famous Sundanese proverb and legend describe the creation of the Parahyangan (Priangan) highlands, which serve as the heartland of the Sundanese realm: "The land of Parahyangan was created when the hyangs (gods) were smiling." The archaeological evidence supported the legend that the Parahyangan highland was a god's playland or abode and in stock of natural beauty.
Relationships Both Within and Outside of The Family
Many Javanese cultural elements have been assimilated into Sundanese culture. It does, however, differ from the previous one. Sundanese differs from Javanese principalities in their mentality and behavior, greater egalitarianism and aversion to stark class distinctions, and community-based material culture. Central Javanese court culture developed in an environment that encouraged elite, stylized, and impeccably polished forms of art and literature. Sundanese culture retains only a few traces of these traditions in their pure form.
Sundanese people follow a bilateral kinship system in which both male and female descent are valued equally. Sundanese families' most essential rituals revolved around life cycles, from conception to death, and they adopted many previous Animist, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic traditions and customs.
For example, a prenatal ritual called Nujuh Bulanan is performed during the seventh month of a woman's pregnancy. Parents are expected to complete an Islamic tradition known as Akekahan shortly after the birth of their child. In this ritual, they slaughter a goat for a baby girl and two goats for a baby boy, then cook and distribute the meat to relatives and neighbors. Pre-pubescent boys are circumcised, and the ceremony is preceded by a Sizingaan dance performance (dance).
The wedding ceremony, which includes several intricate rituals such as naroskeun and neundeun omong, is an integral part of a Sundanese family celebration (marriage proposal and agreement conducted by parents and family elders). Sundanese families commonly use traditional Islam-based rituals such as pengajian (Quran recitation) and providing berkat (rice box with side dishes) to commemorate the death of a loved one.
From the day of death until the seventh day after, the Quran is recited daily; it is then repeated on the 40th, a year, and 1,000th days after the deceased's death. Because an increasing number of Sundanese reject many older traditions, this tradition is only sometimes closely and faithfully followed in the modern era.
Sundanese Traditional Artforms
The vast majority of Sundanese literature was passed down orally. The project of arts (such as architecture, music, dance, textiles, and ceremonies) preserved traditions dating back to the Neolithic and were never overrun (as in Java) by aristocratic Hindu-Buddhist ideas.
Sundanese art and culture have been influenced by a wide range of historical influences, including prehistoric native animism and shamanism traditions, ancient Hindu-Buddhist heritage, and Islamic culture, to name a few.
Sundanese people are said to have vivid oral memories of the Sunda Kingdom's glory days. Pantun Sunda refers to the Sundanese oral tradition, which consists of a chant of poetic verses used for story-telling.
It is the Indonesian equivalent of the Javanese tembang, and it is similar but not identical to the Malay pantun. The legends and folklore of the Pantun Sunda include the stories of Sangkuriang, Lutung Kasarung, Ciung Wanara, Mundinglaya Dikusumah, King Siliwangi's tales, and popular children's folk stories such as Si Leungli.
Traditional Sudanese art images include a variety of genres, such as:
- Combative arts
Some of the most well-known types of Sundanese music such as:
- Angklung Bamboo Music
- Kecapi Suling Music
- Gamelan Degung
- Reyog Sunda
- Rampak Gendang
Sundanese cuisine is one of the most well-known traditional foods in Indonesia, and it can be found in almost all Indonesian cities, making it one of the most accessible. The freshness of Sundanese cuisine distinguishes it from other cuisines.
Sundanese people, like the rest of Indonesia's ethnic groups, eat rice for nearly every meal. "You haven't eaten anything if you haven't eaten rice," the Sundanese says.
Rice can be prepared in various ways, with hundreds of them. There are some interesting notes about cooking with rice here:
- Rather than being the focal point of every meal, steamed rice is their foundation.
- To provide a variety of tastes and a higher intake of protein, minerals, and nutrients than would otherwise be possible, side dishes of vegetables, fish, or meat are served in addition to steamed rice. This group of side dishes includes garlic, galangal, turmeric, coriander, ginger, and lemongrass.
- Grilled, fried, steamed, or cooked on the stovetop are all options.
Sundanese enjoy pepes, a herb-rich dish wrapped and cooked in banana leaves. Pepes is a famous Indonesian dish. Pepes are available in various flavors depending on the ingredients, including carp fish, anchovies, minced meat with eggs, mushrooms, tofu, and oncom (onion). Oncom, like Tempe in Javanese cuisine, is a fermented peanut-based ingredient popular in Sundanese cuisine. Oncom, a fermented peanut-based ingredient, is used in Sundanese cuisine. The food is usually not overly spicy when served with a boiling sauce made by grinding chili peppers and garlic. Saltwater fish are common along the coast; in the mountains, carp and goldfish from ponds are the most common types of fish to find. Lalapan is a popular Sundanese dish that consists entirely of raw vegetables such as papaya leaves, cucumbers, eggplant, and bitter melon.
Sundanese cuisine is generally rich and savory but less rich than Padang cuisine or as sweet as Javanese cuisine.
Agriculture, particularly rice cultivation, has been a traditional Sundanese occupation for centuries. Sundanese culture and tradition are centered on the agricultural cycle, a year-round activity. Seren Taun harvest ceremonies, for example, are highly valued in traditional Sundanese communities throughout Indonesia, particularly in Sukabumi province's Ciptagelar village, Bogor's Taman Sari district's Sindang Barang, and Cigugur Kuningan. The leuit (rice barn) has long been an essential part of traditional Sundanese villages, and its inhabitants regard it as a symbol of wealth and well-being. The majority of Sundanese have been farmers since recorded history began. They frequently express apprehension about becoming government officials or legislators.
Agriculture, business, and trade are popular ways for Sundanese to make a living. However, most are traditional ventures such as traveling food or drink vendors, opening modest food stalls or restaurants, working as daily consumer goods vendors, or opening a barbershop.
Sundanese independence, carefree attitude, egalitarianism, individualism, and optimism likely influence their penchant for starting and running small-scale businesses. They appear to despise the rigid structure of the government as well as the rule of law. The majority of traditional traveling food vendors and food stalls are run by Sundanese people, including Siomay, Gado-gado, Karedok, Nasi Goreng, Cendol, Bubur Ayam, Roti Bakar (grilled bread), Bubur kacang hijau (green bean congee), and Indomie instant noodle stall.
On the other hand, Sundanese have made a name for themselves in national politics, government offices, and military positions as intellectuals or politicians. Some notable Sundanese have risen to positions of power in the Indonesian government and military, including governors, municipal majors, vice presidents, state ministers in the government, and officers and colonels in the military.
Sundanese people are also known for being upbeat and mercurial, with a penchant for joking and teasing one another. The wayang golek art form, which features the characters Cepot, Dawala, and Gareng Punakawan, exemplifies Sundanese eccentricity. Some Sundanese may develop an appreciation for art and culture and go on to work as artists in a variety of mediums, such as fine art, music, and performing arts. Several Sundanese works in the music and entertainment industries today, including some of Indonesia's most well-known singers, musicians, composers, film directors, and film and sinetron actors of Sundanese descent.