Makassarese Batik

FU WEE ·

Batik Makassarese Costume

Introduce Traditional Makassarese Batik Costume

The batik business in Makassar, on the island of South Sulawesi, is just getting started. The traditional Makassar costume in batik design is now available in a wide range of colors, designs, and themes. One of Makassar's most distinctive batik attire, the Lontara Balla Sari batik, is on display.

The Lontara batik is a Bugis Makassar batik that is distinctive of South Sulawesi and has a motif of the Lontara script. It is also known as Lontara batik.

Four ethnic groups in South Sulawesi are thought to be represented by the unique and elegant shape of the Lontara script. All of these groups speak the script in their languages:

  1. The Bugis
  2. The Makassar
  3. The Toraja
  4. The Mandar

When the Lontara motif first appeared on the scene in Makassar batik, it was motivated by a wish to preserve the lontara writing. The ultimate objective is to make the future generation more familiar with and knowledgeable about the Londa script.

Andi Aisyah, Jenny, is a businesswoman who was instrumental in developing the lontara batik motif in traditional costume. With the assistance of four of her workers, Aisyah has been refining her lontara batik technique since 2013. Written batik and batik clothing are among the batik goods that are made. Lontara batik costume has also been successfully got the license to export to other countries.

 

The International Market for Makassarese Batik

Since 2009, the evolution of batik has been documented by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and batik has become the national image of Indonesia. Indonesia has many different batik designs, like giant clouds, flora and fauna, characters, and many more. Batik has also spread worldwide, as seen by the popular Makassar Lontara script batik.

The Lontara script is used, which is the traditional script of the Bugis and the Makassar peoples of Indonesia. According to historical documents, Lontara is a Kawi writing development employed in the Indonesian archipelago during the 800s. Because of the visual similarities between the two inscriptions, there is another theory that the lontara script is based on the Renjang script from South Sumatra, which has been proposed.

The lontara style reflects the four ethnic groups in South Sulawesi, including the Bugis, Makassar, Toraja, and Mandar, who are all known for using the script in their writing. When the lontara motif first appeared on the scene in Makassar batik, it was motivated by a wish to preserve the lontara writing. The purpose is to familiarize the younger generation with the Lontara script so that they get more comfortable and comprehend it later.

The lontara script motif itself still needs to be implemented, as the lontara script itself contains rules and requirements for writing that must be followed. When the Lontara script is written differently than it was initially intended to be written, the free meaning of the original writing might also change. Makassar batik is known for using only lontara script motifs and no other motifs.

Lontara batik, or "written batik," is a textile created by writing. Until recent period of time, Lontara batik was only available for purchase in foreign countries, especially the English speaking countries.

 

Makassarese Batik Traditions

Many, if not most, Chinese communities lost touch with the craft of wax printing as Chinese culture progressed, and batik was abandoned for whatever reasons. Because batik is a tradition that is passed down from generation to generation, it is considered to have been ubiquitous throughout China. There are currently just two ethnic groups, the Zhuang and the Miao, who live in small enclaves in Guizhou, Guangxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan Provinces and have retained the old practice of batik, also known as wax printing, which dates back thousands of years.

Many oral traditions are only perpetuated in smaller ethnic communities, which is not surprising, as many oral traditions are also only preserved in smaller ethnic communities. China Highlights has trips to Guizhou for people who want to learn more about the ancient culture of the Miao and Dong ethnic groups in Guizhou, which includes their centuries-old batik culture.

Flower blossoms that appear to burst out of the fabric are a favorite of the Zhuang ethnic minority, who prefer dyed-blue fabric with white flower blossoms to make a batik shirt. Firstly, the material is bleached till it is pasty white, then allowed to dry completely before the hot wax is placed in the shape of a flower bloom. The remainder of the process is as explained above. As long as the Miao use the same basic batik process as the Zhuang ethnic group, they use a more comprehensive range of representational and non-representational images than the Zhuang do.

The Zhuang and the Miao not only manufacture batik for their personal use, but they also produce batik to sell their products. Wax-print objects are available for purchase in various ethnic communities and range from home décor items (curtains, pillows, tablecloths, and wall hangings) to personal items (handbags, costume dolls, and apparel), among other things.

 

Makassarese People

The Makassar or Makassarese people are an Indonesian ethnic group living in the southern South Peninsula, Sulawesi (previously Celebes). They are known as the Makassarese people because of the language they speak. 

They are believed to inhabit the area surrounding Makassar, the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, the Konjo highlands, coastal areas, and the islands of Selayar and Spermonde. 

They speak Makassarese, which is closely linked to Buginese, and Makassar Malay, a Malay creole spoken in the Makassar region of Indonesia.

 

Makassarese History

The Makassar are an ethnic group that originated on the island of Sulawesi's southern coast, where they live today. Their adventurous attitudes have resulted in successful travels to foreign lands. In the 14th and 17th centuries, the Kingdom of Gowa established a great Islamic empire with an extensive and powerful naval force. Almost the whole island of Sulawesi, eastern Kalimantan, East Nusa Tenggara, a portion of West Nusa Tenggara, a portion of Maluku, and several minor nearby islands were included in its territorial scope. 

According to historical records, the Makassar people signed contracts with Bali and collaborated with Malacca, Banten, and several other kingdoms in the Indonesian archipelago. Treaties of a similar nature were occasionally concluded with other countries, particularly the Portuguese. However, up to its demise, Gowa was also embroiled in continuing conflicts with the Dutch.

 

Makassarese Lifestyle

The Makassar are reputed to have explored enormous areas of the world's waters, reaching as far as South Africa in their quest for knowledge and treasure. A location known as "Macassar" exists in the South African country of South Africa. A mixed indigenous and Makassar ancestry is thought to be represented among the local population. Meanwhile, the surname Macassar is thought to have derived from the name of the country where their forefathers were born. In South Africa and neighboring Mozambique, there are several locations named Macassar.

 

Makassarese Language

The Makassarese language, often referred to as Basa Mangkasara, is spoken by the Makassar people. It is a dialect of the Basa Mangkasara language family. 

Logat Makassar, also known as "Logat Makassar," is a Malay Creole language. The port of Makassar, on the island of South Sulawesi, is where this language is spoken as the language of commerce. In 2000, the number of speakers reached 1.889 million, and it is anticipated that the number of speakers of these languages will continue to expand until it reaches 3.5 million. 

Most individuals who speak this language are either immigrants from outside the city of Makassar, residents of Makassar City, young people from the city of Makassar, or people who need to be more fluent in Makassarese. In the South Peninsula region of Sulawesi, this language is spoken by the locals.

 

Makassarese Religion

The island of South Sulawesi was a hub for regional trade in the 16th century, with Malay Muslim traders and Portuguese traders frequently visiting the area. Generally speaking, native monarchs were not committed to the Muslim or Christian faiths and permitted each to retain a presence. Padre Manuel de la Costa paid a visit to Gowa court in the summer of 1537, accompanied by Portuguese agents from Ternate. According to Portuguese documents, certain members of the Gowan aristocracy decided to convert to Christianity.

When a Portuguese missionary attempted to convert the 14th Gowa king, I Mangngarangi Daeng Manrabbia, according to Antonio de Payva, a Portuguese trader and missionary from Malaccas, who had some success converting some Bugis kings from Ajatappareng, the king was hesitant to change his ancestral faith. He invited Malay priests to compare both religions first. Around 1593, he decided to convert to Islam and take the title of Sultan Aluddin. 

After that, he declared Islam to be the official religion of Gowa. Payva observed that Malay dealers and priests are often more respected and trusted than Portuguese traders and priests. Since the 9th Gowa monarch, Tum Parisi Kallona, the Gowa people have maintained trading ties with traders from Java, Sumatra, Pattani, Pahang, Champa, and Johor. 

According to the literature, Lontarak Patturiolonga, during the reign of the 11th Gowa monarch, Tunipalangga, these traders were permitted to practice Islam and were given particular advantages in exchange. Several towns in South Sulawesi have asked that Sultan Muda Alauddin Riayat Shah of Aceh send ulama to the region, as he is well-known for sending ulama outside of Aceh.

Three Minangkabau ulama were dispatched to South Sulawesi to spread Islam

  • Dato Ri Bandang
  • Dato Ri Tiro
  • Dato Ri Patimang

They traveled to Riau and Johor to study South Sulawesi culture from Bugis-Makassar sailors stationed there. They studied under Wali Songo of Java, thanks to the assistance of the Sultan of Johor, before ultimately landing in Somba Opu port in the early 17th century. It is possible to draw parallels between Islam and the indigenous practice of Deata Sewwae in the Luwu Kingdom, formerly regarded as the spiritual hub of South Sulawesi. The kings of Luwu converted first, using their power and authority to pressure Gowa-Tallo into conversion. This was because Gowa-Tallo had the power and authority to drive conversion in South Sulawesi, which Luwu needed. Native Ammatoa practitioners in Bulukumba had to learn how to adapt to the conversion process as it went on slowly and quietly.

By 1611, most of the Makasar and Bugis kingdoms had converted to Christianity. Currently, the Makassar are almost entirely Muslim, but some ancient pre-Islamic traditions are still alive and well in the more remote parts of the province.

 

Differences between the Buginese and Makassar Peoples

Many individuals believe that the Makassar people and the Buginese people are identical and racially related and that the labels "Buginese" and "Makassar" were invented by the Dutch colonial authorities to create a divide between the two groups. 

Because these people were notably rebellious against the Dutch colonial authorities, once the Sultanate of Makassar fell under the control of the Dutch colonial authorities, all potential was gone. Conflicts are inevitable whenever these people contact the Dutch colonial authorities. Several famous people concentrated in Gowa Regency, such as Karaeng Galesong, who stood firm against the Japanese occupation and relocated to Central Java. 

They would fight with any Dutch vassals, backed by a formidable naval force under his command. As a result, the Dutch colonials under Cornelis Speelman at the time referred to him as the Si-Bajak-Laut, which translates as "the pirate." 

Regarding linguistic distinction, Makassarese Batik and Buginese are two separate languages. However, both languages are members of the South Sulawesi group [19] within the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family. 

Among the languages classified in this group are Makassarese, Bentong, Coastal and Highland Konjo, and Selayar. In contrast, Buginese is included in the same subcategory as the Campalagian language, with another two languages spoken in Kalimantan, Embaloh, and Taman. It is one of the qualities that differentiate the Bugis and the Makassar people from one another because they have variances in their language and culture.

The conquest of kingdoms such as Bone State and Wajo Kingdom by the Sultanate of Gowa gave rise to the notion that the Buginese and Makassar people are racially kindred, supported by archaeological evidence.

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