Betawi Costume and Clothing
Introduce Betawi Batik
Jakarta, Indonesia's capital city, is not just known for its skyscrapers and status as one of the world's largest metropolitan cities. There are many more distinctive things that Jakarta has to offer. One of them is the Betawi, Jakarta's indigenous people, and their inventive and exceptional products. As is generally known, the Betawi tribe, which resides in Jakarta and sections of West Java and Banten, has distinct cultural items.
Not all of the indigenous Betawi culture has faded and vanished. Many individuals still care about and want to preserve Betawi culture. One of them is through developing and manufacturing innovative economic items (ekraf). Some of these creative goods are widely available and may be purchased online.
Batik Betawi's Costume Characteristics
The designs on the Betawi batik motifs depict local geography and plants. The former history of Jakarta is frequently told through Betawi batik designs, such as:
- Betawi Batik Jali-Ja Motif
- Ondel-Ondel Pucuk Rebung Motif
- Rasamala Motif
- Nusa Kelapa
- Betawi Batik Cloth
The themes and qualities of Betawi batik traditional clothing have philosophies, such as batik shirt, dress, accessory, etc. Batik is an effort by the Betawi people to keep traditional values passed down from generation to generation. These values are then written down in Betawi batik designs.
Getting To Know Meanings and Patterns in Betawi Batik Clothes
Betawi batik costume patterns are highly varied and rich in philosophical meaning. New symbols have been added to Betawi cultural characters, which are already well-known, such as Jakarta ondel-ondel, Betawi dancers, and unique flora that have ever lived in Jakarta, what separates them from other batik designs, according to Siti Laela - Chairman of the Betawi Batik Terogong.
Betawi batik is divided into two types as well: stamped and written. The method used to create the batik is not dissimilar from that used in other parts of the world. The motif is imprinted or stamped on the paper in the first step. Then, if necessary, the coloring stage is done.
Furthermore, the batik cloth is allowed to dry in the sun before being subjected to the procedure of dissolving the wax coating with hot water, which helps the motif to be more clearly seen. Depending on the complexity of the patterns created, the process might take 1–3 weeks.
Betawi batik motifs, as well as their origins and meanings, have been collated from a variety of sources. The following are some examples:
The Salakanagara Style Betawi Batik
In Betawi batik designs, nature is a significant source of inspiration, which is especially true. So there arose the Salakanagara motif, which was named after Mount Salak and was influenced by it.
According to the website of the Nusantara Museum, local villagers think that Gunung Salak possesses enormous strength and is capable of protecting Batavia. This pattern evokes the topic of the first kingdom in Batavia, now known as Jakarta, which was created by Aki Tirem in 130 AD and still exists today.
The Nusa Kelapa Betawi Batik Theme
Similarly to the Salakanagara motif, the Nusa Kelapa motif is another Betawi batik motif that draws influence from nature. This motif depicts the condition of Jakarta in the past when the city was lovely and surrounded by large areas of rice fields before it was eventually lost to modernization.
It got its name from a Celia map that was created between 1482 and 1521 during the reign of King Siliwangi. Because a place called Nusa Kelapa existed, which later became Sunda Kelapa, this map became known as the "forerunner" of the name Jakarta. Then, it went from Jayakarta through Batavia and finally ended up in Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel and Tanjidor Betawi Batik Themes
Betawi batik has been suffering from an "identity crisis" for a long time since it has been overshadowed in terms of status by batik from other regions. Eventually, Betawi Batik went through a period of growth to remain relevant in the industry.
For instance, popular symbols of Betawi culture may be incorporated into batik patterns in various ways. Examples include the development of the ondel-ondel and tanjidor motifs, which have only been around for around 20 years. Ondel-ondel is a term that refers to the rejection of reinforcements and the repelling of spirits who have strayed. Tanjidor, on the other hand, is a traditional Betawi musical performance. The primary colors used in this theme are black, yellow, and orange, with a few different colors thrown in.
Betawi Batik Bamboo Shoot Motifs in the Ondel-Ondel Style
This pattern mixes natural inspiration with Betawi cultural icons' individuality to create a distinctive design. There's also a more profound significance to it than that.
In the Betawi culture, the ondel-ondel symbol of bamboo shoots is used to convey that they are honest and transparent people. Green and blue are the primary colors used. Throughout the fabric, the picture of the ondel-ondel is prominently shown in the center, while images of bamboo shoots are represented along the edges.
Betawi Batik Marunda Motif
Aiming to empower inhabitants of apartments in the Marunda district, Cilincing, North Jakarta, who had previously resided in slum regions, Batik Marunda was established in 2005. Iriana Jokowi was the chair of the DKI Jakarta Dekranasda at the time this project was started. She was the person who made this happen.
Two of the most common Marunda Betawi Batik designs are fan birds and bandotan flowers, both seen here. Furthermore, the textile differs from Betawi batik, characterized by its depiction of the national monument or monument. Marunda Batik focuses on the flora and wildlife that are characteristic of Jakarta.
Betawi Batik Traditional Clothing and Its Motifs
- The Beginning: Batik Fabric is one of the Indonesian cultural sites designated by UNESCO as a world heritage site. Batik is the identity and feature of almost every area in Indonesia, including Jakarta. Jakarta batik, also known as Batik Betawi, is one of the several varieties of batik in Indonesia, each with its distinct theme.
- The Spread: With its vibrant colors and particular motifs, Betawi batik has its distinct style. Many of the Betawi batik themes are influenced by Jakarta's past. One of Jakarta's traditional crafts is Betawi batik.
- The Development: This batik has been made since the nineteenth century and is popular in Batavia. In the period, the Met Zellar and Van Zuylen fashion companies were among the most sought-after batik makers among the upper classes, including the Dutch, Chinese, and indigenous elites. The Tanah Abang region, from Karet Tengsin and Kebayoran to Tebet, was the hub of batik manufacturing at the time. Chinese batik entrepreneurs dominate the area. The classic Betawi batik motif followed the design from Java Island's northern shore with a coastline theme. Chinese culture and Middle Eastern calligraphy have strongly impacted this batik design as it has evolved. According to Pergub number 11 of 2017, the Betawi batik is one of eight Betawi cultural symbols. The hub for Betawi batik craftspeople may now be found in the Terogong region of South Jakarta.
Nusa Kelapa Betawi Batik Motif
The Nusa Kelapa theme shows the conditions in old Jakarta when the land was lovely, with many trees, mountains, and cool and fresh rice fields, before becoming a highly crowded metropolis with structures.
The name of this theme is derived from a Celia map created during the reign of King Siliwangi in 1482–1521. On the map, the first name of Jakarta was Nusa Kelapa. It then changed to Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, Batavia, and Jakarta.
Betawi Batik Skyscraper Motif
This theme portrays towering structures, which are common in Jakarta. Among these structures is the mascot of Betawi, Ondel-ondel. One of the themes in the book shows how even though Jakarta gets better and better, ondel-ondel will always be part of the identity of the Jakartan people, especially the Betawi.
Betawi Batik Ondel-Ondel Pucuk Rebung Motif
The ondel-ondel The Pucuk Rebung Motif signifies that the Betawi people are honest and modest. The fundamental hues of green and blue are commonly used in this design. The picture of ondel-ondel is portrayed in the center of the fabric, while the Pucuk Rebung is represented along the cloth's edge.
Betawi Batik Jali-Ja Motif
Jali Jali is a species of tree that is commonly seen in Jakarta. This design evokes memories of ancient Jakarta when jali-jali trees were still in bloom. Children frequently use the tree's fruit as necklaces and bracelets. As well as in Betawi batik designs, Jali-jali is a Jakarta song that has been played for many years.
Betawi Batik Rasamala Motif
The Rasamala tree inspired the name of this Rasamala pattern. In ancient times, the Betawi people believed the rasamala was a holy tree that could bring protection.
The Rasamala theme depicts the occurrence when the Dutch first arrived in the Batavia region, namely at the Sunda Kelapa Harbor.
Betawi Batik Ondel-Ondel dan Tanjidor Motif
As the name implies, the predominant pictures in this pattern are ondel-ondel and tanjidor. Ondel-ondel represents the rejection of bad luck and the repelling of straying spirits. Tanjidor, on the other hand, is a traditional Betawi music performance. This motif's primary colors are black, yellow, and orange.
Betawi batik has peculiarities that other areas' batiks still need to have in terms of color, design, and theme. The colors used in Betawi batik are typically vibrant, such as green, red, and blue. Betawi batik patterns are influenced by cultural values prevalent in the local community. Betawi batik patterns are classified into two types: old and contemporary. Old themes include coconut motifs, ciliwung, rasamala, salakanagara, bamboo shoots, and ondel-ondel, which are examples of old themes. Unfortunately, these motifs are hard to come by anymore.
Betawi batik then offers themes such as Monas patterns, coconut blossoms, and TransJakarta. Betawi batik is mainly worn and sold in various batik villages in Jakarta, including the Terogong Betawi Batik Village and the Palbatu Batik Village. Furthermore, a lot of artisans sell Betawi batik on the web marketplace.
Dodol Betawi Batik
Some individuals notice Garut when they hear the term "dodol." However, Garut is one of many places known for its dodol manufacturing. Betawi also has a traditional dodol with its distinct flavor. The texture of Betawi dodol is chewier than that of Garut dodol. The key to Betawi dodol's flexibility is in the final manufacturing process, which does not involve liquid sugar.
Dodol manufacturing is still done by the Betawi people, notably during the Rantangan festival. Rantangan is a Betawi custom that is commonly performed before Eid. People in Betawi, Ethiopia, follow this tradition by making a lot of different foods and giving them to their families, friends, and neighbors.
Ondel, Ondel Betawi Batik
The term ondel-ondel is already familiar to the vast majority of Jakartans. Ondel-ondel is a giant doll of woven bamboo dressed in traditional Betawi clothing and accessories. Farmers on the outskirts of Jakarta created Ondel-ondel. Farmers often construct an ondel-ondel when harvesting season begins to store grain.
Since its inception, ondel-ondel has been used as entertainment and musical accompaniment for special occasions. Ondel-ondel is no longer only a matter of sheer magnitude. Some artists use it to create souvenirs and gifts such as dolls, masks, miniatures, and key chains from ondel-ondel lace.
Betawi Batik Cloth
Indonesia is a craft-rich country. Batik is one of the Indonesian people's handicrafts. And this is a craft that everyone is familiar with. The rest of the world has already admitted it. Almost every location has at least one type or theme of batik, such as batik Betawi. Betawi, a Jakarta native community, has become one of the most innovative and well-known ethnic groups via the art theater, or lenong.
Betawi batik cloth is sarong cloth with an intensified traditional Tumpal design, a geometric pattern of triangles as a line that fences the fabric head and body. The motif of the bird hong was also incorporated into the characteristics of batik Betawi as a sign of pleasure. The Betawi batik theme focuses on Betawi cultural art influenced by Arabic, Indian, Dutch, and Chinese culture. There are many types of Betawi batik with ancient themes, like Ondel-ondel, Nusa coconut, Ciliwung, Rasamala, and Salakanegara.
Batik Betawi is frequently used for Betawi events such as weddings, traditional Betawi performing arts, and so on. The batik characteristic of this Betawi emphasizes the brilliant colors and batik motifs of Betawi and is more mencearakan about the significance of the Betawi community's culture itself. This betawi's characteristic batik motif is the ciliwung river motif. The logo of a typical doll is ondel-ondel betawi, then map the ceilets, then there is also batik with tumpal themes, and still many more. Like many others, this batik motif has its philosophy and purpose.
For example, this theme is designed to boost the Ondel-ondel figure as a doll capable of withstanding reinforcements. This pattern conveys the wearer's desire for a better life away from the reinforcements. This batik Betawi pattern is typically employed in huge Betawi traditional celebrations.
While the Nusa Kelapa theme was inspired by Peta Ceila, which was built between 1482 and 1521 during King Siliwangi's reign, According to the map, Jakarta was initially named Nusa Coconut before being renamed Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, Batavia, and Jakarta. Betawi ancestors adopted the term Nusa Kelapa as a Betawi batik theme.
Meanwhile, the Ciliwung theme is based on the notion of human civilization that originates from the Ciliwung River's banks. It is stated that the Portuguese and Dutch monarchs wanted to dominate Betawi because they were so interested in the Ciliwung River. As the name indicates, the use of batik is supposed to become the wearer's focal point and a sign of sustenance that flows like a stream of time.
When visiting the Sunda Kelapa area, Batik Rasamala themes illustrate the history of the Netherlands. Sunda Kelapa was still a forest at the time, overrun with trees of the Rasamala kind. The Betawi love the Rasamala tree for its scent, bark, and setanggi, which is setanggi made from the tree's bark.
Salakanagara batik motif is a batik that raised the first thematic motifs in Aki Tirem's kingdom of Betawi country in 130 AD. Salakanegara is related to the people's belief at the time that the mountain had power, and the mountain is Mount Salak, which is located in Bogor Regency.
Another distinctive feature of Betawi batik is using the same design on the top and bottom circles, distinguishing adalan material choice. For the upper class, excellent mori cap sen is typically used. The bottom is composed of rough mori or calico. In the late nineteenth century, Batik Betawi became a popular clothing material among the Betawi male population, particularly in the Betawi area of Central. Like the Dutch, they wear batik as their pants' material. Furthermore, Betawi batik is used for everyday wear, celebration (parties), and pleasure (plesiran) (streets).
Unfortunately, antique Betawi batik is now impossible to locate. Ancient batik motifs from Betawi are only sometimes encountered in exhibits or significant events featuring Betawi customs.